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NORTH CAUCASUS ECOLOGICAL HERALD

Registration certificate PI № FS 77-21756 dated 30 august 2005

 2015, Vol. 11,  № 1                                                                Theoretical journal

 Founded in 2005                                                   .           Gets out four times per year

  C O N T E N T S

FORMATION OF THE MODERN OF GEOCHEMICAL GUISES OF SOIL AND  USING INDUSTRIAL WASTES

Alexeenko Vladimir A.

doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Scientific Research Institute of Geochemistry of the biosphere Southern Federal University; Maritime State University; Novorossiysk, Russia, Novorossiysk, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

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In recent decades, throughout the world, under the influence of anthropogenic activities, and geochemical characteristics of soils, primarily agricultural soils, have undergone significant changes in the prevalence and distribution of metals. For establishing concentrations of metals in soils, the most favorable for separate kinds of cultivated crops, proposed to use data about removal from soil these elements. Materials on the compilation and state publication of maps geochemical of landscapes of various regions, in particular the Krasnodar and Stavropol territories and republics of the North Caucasus have been used in the article. The main geochemical changes in the studied landscapes occurred in the upper 30 cm soil layer. On the formation of the modern of geochemical image of soils significantly affected human activities: mining, beneficiation plants and sedimentation tanks. The largest areas of contaminated soils (clark more than 10) is formed around plants for smelting ores. "Metallization of soils" is also associated with the work of transport, human settlements, using various machines and fertilizers. Soils of landscapes with a high content of metals can become secondary pollutants to neighboring landscapes, having negative impact on the biota. In soils of agricultural landscapes should be considered as a process of increasing and removal of trace elements. 

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PECULIAR BIOLOGICAL RECULTIVATION OF PHOSPHOGYPSUM STACK IN BALAKOVO BRANCH OF “APATIT” JOINT-STOCK COMPANY

Belobrov Viktor Petrovich,

doctor of agricultural sciences, Soil Science Institute named after V.V. Dokuchaev, Moscow, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.  

Grebennikov Alexander Mikhailovich

doctor of agricultural sciences, Soil Science Institute named after V.V. Dokuchaev, Moscow, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.  

Kulenkamp Alexander Yur'evich

candidate of agricultural sciences, Russian State Agrarian University named after K.A. Timirjazeva, Russia, Moscow, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.  

Ryashko Andrey Ivanovich

junior researcher, Scientific-Research Institute for fertilizers and insectofungicides named after professor Y.V. Samoilov, Moscow, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.  

Torochkov Evgeny Leonidovich,

head of the department of industrial ecology, Scientific-Research Institute for fertilizers and insectofungicides named after professor Y.V. Samoilov, Moscow, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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Ecological features of warehousing of phosphogypsum in Balakovsk area in Saratov region are considered. Air pollution, soil and vegetation cover in the area of influence of dump caused by the gas-dust emission. One effective way to minimize the impact on atmospheric air, soil and vegetation surrounding to the dump area is biological reclamation. Bioremediation allows to protect of slopes of dump against water erosion and deflation, as well as improve the aesthetic appearance of the technogenic array. Macro- and microelement composition of phosphogypsum and various substrates used in the field experiments on the biological reclamation dump are analyzed. Phosphogypsum is permissible level of contamination according total pollution index . High acidity, high levels of strontium, lack of natural organic matter, wide variation in the content of exchangeable potassium, an excessive amount of mobile phosphorus hampers normal growth and development of plants on phosphogypsum. The most promising substrates - humus horizon surrounding soil and sludge from the sludge collector are revealed. The best is the humus horizon soils because it contains useful natural microflora. 

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INNOVATIVE ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND (NANO) TECHNOLOGY OF CULTIVATION OF AMARANTH

Voropaeva Nadezhda Leonidovna

doctor of chemistry science, Professor, Russian Scientific Research Institute of canola, Lipetsk, Russia,  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Belonozhkina Thais Grigor'evna

candidate of agricultural sciences, Russian Scientific Research Institute of canola, Lipetsk, Russia

Karpachev Vladimir Vladimirovich

doctor of agricultural sciences, Professor, Russian Scientific Research Institute of canola, Lipetsk, Russia

Naumov Evgeniy Vsyevolodovitch

candidate of physical and mathematical sciences, Scientific Association for High Temperatures RAS, Moscow, Russia.

Vasiliev Mikhail Mikhailovich  

candidate of physical and mathematical sciences, Scientific Association for High Temperatures RAS, Moscow, Russia

Petrov Oleg Fedorovich

corresponding member. Russian Academy of Sciences, doctor of physical and mathematical sciences, Scientific Association for High Temperatures RAS, Moscow, Russia

 

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One of the most important tasks of agricultural production has been and remains improving of sowing qualities of seeds in order to increase the yield of various crops. Ways to control of living systems and organisms with application metabolic activators such as physiologically active substances, physical fields, complex crops to include them different ecology and biology of plant species and others are currently one of the most promising areas in plant breeding. In this connection of particular interest is technology of management of plant organisms by means of "address the impact of" of signals a physical nature. Biologically active parameters of plasma was characterized; theoretical approaches by use of plasma were studied; attempts to describe of theory of interaction of plasma radiation and biological objects was taken; in laboratory, vegetation and field experiments opportunities of using and improving of application of plasma for presowing cultivation of seeds of different crops were identified. Basic requirements by agricultural plasma torches and production equipment for the formation of physiologically active components of the plasma were formulated; recommendations on plasma technology at cultivation the main agricultural crops developed and tested in the agricultural enterprises. Plasma treatment of seeds has an impact on growth and development of amaranth. When germination of treated with plasma of seeds significantly increased their germination energy and germination, which gives a stable increase of yield by 15-20 % or more (50 %), as well as increase the nutritional value of fruits and economically valuable of plant organs by increasing the accumulation in them amount of proteins, sugars, organic acids, vitamin C, trace elements and other nutrients. Plasma treatment is characterized by a fungicidal and bactericidal action, eliminates of carrying process of scarification seed with hard shell. Plasma technology of seed treatment is ecologically safe. The effectiveness of treatment depends on the irradiation exposure. The greatest positive impact of plasma treatment on growth, development and yield of amaranth marked when exposure of 60 seconds, resulting in increased productivity. 

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MODIFIED NATURAL RAW MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS OF PROCESSING ITS WASTES IN COMPOSITION OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND (NANO) CHIPS FOR AGRIBUSINESS

 Dedicated to the bright memory of Professor I.N. Rubanova

Voropaeva Nadezhda L.

doctor of chemistry science, professor, Russian Scientific Research Institute of canola, Lipetsk, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.  

Mukhin Viktor M.

doctor of technical sciences, professor, award winner of government of the Russian Federation, honored inventor of the Russian Federation, JSC "Inorganic", Russia, Elektrostal

Karpachev Vladimir V.

doctor of agricultural sciences, professor, Russian Scientific Research Institute of canola, Lipetsk, Russia

Tkachev Alexey G.

Tambov State Technical University named after G.R. Derzhavin, Russia, Tambov

Gusev Aleksandr A.

Tambov State University named after G.R. Derzhavin, Russia, Tambov

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Modern level of development of agricultural science has led to the emergence of new method of crop protection, based on improving the immune potential of plants with the help elicitors, rather than on destruction of pathogens by using pesticides. Biogenic elicitors are applied in very small quantities and produced based on the bacterial cultures. When developing (nano) chip as a carrier matrix and elicitors uses materials chemical processing of agricultural wastes and products their modifications (straw and other wastes different crop ) - active carbons; food (wastes of production of juices, seafood and others) - derivatives of pectin, chitin; woodworking industry - cellulose ethers. Effects when conduct of research, which use new nanoporous (nano) chips for presowing cultivation of seeds based on carbon- sorbents with inclusion in their composition of different products of plant protection biogenic nature were revealed. Influence of inducers of disease resistance based on chitosan, organic acids and other elicitors in the composition (nano) chips of different composition for presowing cultivation of seeds and top dressing on growth, development, incidence of rape plants, size and quality of the crop was studied. Field experience founded on background common technology of cultivation canola in the Central Black Earth Zone. With the use of nanotechnology in the processing of seeds and plants on their surface are formed nanoscale structures that provide high efficiency of processes of mineral nutrition, protection and development and increases productivity. Using of biopesticides with elicitor activity and as part of ecologically clean (nano) chips for the presowing cultivation of seeds allows to obtain ecologically safe and clean production, the demand for which is increasing from year to year in all regions of the world.

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USE NON-TRADITIONAL CROPS IN CLEAN TECHNOLOGY

 Zhukova May P.

doctor of agricultural sciences, professor, Stavropol State Agrarian University, Russia, Mikhailovsk 

 

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Non-traditional crops with complex biological and economic characteristics, since the 30s of the last century, are widely used in various parts of our country for the formation of crop rotation. Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) is the youngest crop in modern plant breeding. National economic importance of non-traditional crops broomcorn and stevia is given in the article. This cultures can be widely used in the production of ecology clean products thanks to complex biological and economic valuable characteristics and properties. Broomcorn was importance of culture bilateral using and growing for grain and green fodder or hay. Natural sweetener from stevia has chemical, physical and pharmacological properties, which allow using it the composition of food as a substitute for sugar in a wide range and without side effects. Scientists Stavropol Agricultural University since 2000 were conducting research this culture. Conditions of Stavropol Territory for the cultivation of stevia are favorable. Pinching seedlings Stevia affects the formation of architectonic plants. Processing of green cuttings stevia when landing accelerates root formation, growth and development of seedlings. The most effective was a complex treatment set of biologically active substances: Potassium Lignohumate Darin + 17 + 1 Biofit. 

 

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PROBLEMS OF USE OF ORGANIC WASTE IN AGRICULTURE

Merzlaya Genrieta E.

doctor of agricultural sciences, professor, Institute of Agricultural Chemistry D.N. Pryanishnikov, Russia, Moscow, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

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The results of research and practical experience in the processing of organic wastes from industry, agriculture and municipal economy to fertilizer and their use under agricultural crops are summarized. Organic waste, which can be used in agricultural technique are wood waste (sawdust, bark), waste pulp and paper industry (lignin, lignosulfonates), food industry, municipal waste (sewage sludge, municipal solid waste), agricultural wastes (straw, haulm , sunflower husks and etc.). Features manure depending on housing, feeding and animal species analyzed. Expediency annual (within 15 years) application of semi-liquid manure of cattle on sod-podzolic heavy soil in fodder crop rotation at doses up to 300 kg / ha of nitrogen has been shown in research Institute of Agricultural Chemistry named after D.N. Pryanishnikov. One way of utilization of wastes poultry farm is creation on their  basis of dry granular fertilizer. The most responsive to the introduction of dry manure was fodder beet. On each ton of absolutely dry matter of poultry manure had 76 kg of essential nutrients (NPK). Vermifertilizer from manure successfully used in the protected ground for growing vegetables. Approximate doses of poultry manure for different crops are given. In technologies of cultivation of agricultural crops effective application of poultry manure together with mineral, primarily potassium fertilizers. By content of organic material of 1 ton of straw is equivalent to 3.5-4 tons of solid manure. Difference in the chemical composition of the straw of different crops is presented. Joint application of straw with a manure appropriate. Sewage sludge which formed on aeration plants are valuable fertilizers. Using composts from sewage sludge with 10% sawdust by dry mass allows obtaining by optimizing doses of reliable increase of yield of perennial with grasses good fodder dignity. At the same time fodder products on the content of heavy metals in versions of composts is little differ from traditional manure. Application rates of rainfall under agricultural crops are calculated based on the actual content of normalized contaminants in sludge and soils. In enhancing the effectiveness of organic fertilizers produced based on various non-toxic wastes, important role has scientifically based methods their preparation and application under agricultural crops by optimization dose, timing and methods of application. Efficiency of fertilizer from organic wastes and perspectives their application for improve of soil fertility, yield and quality of agricultural crops taking into account environmental protection is shown.

 

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COMPARISON OF PHYTOTOXICITY, FUNGICIDAL AND BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY OF STREPTOMICES FROM DIFFERENT BIOTOPES. DETERMINATION OF SPECIES RANK FOR STRAIN A8

Mindubaev Anton Z.

candidate of chemical sciences, Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry A.E. Arbuzov, KSC RAS, Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Alimova Farida K.

doctor of biological sciences, Professor, Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Yahvarov Dmitry G.

doctor of chemical sciences, associate professor, Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry A.E. Arbuzov, KSC RAS, Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Bolormaa Chuluun

graduate student, department of biochemistry, faculty of biology and soils, Kazan (Volga) Federal University, Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Saparmyradov Keremli A.

student of V course, department of biochemistry, faculty of biology and soils, Kazan (Volga) Federal University, Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

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In our previous research we have for the first time biodegradation of white phosphorus and established (at least partially) its metabolic pathway. Besides, we have isolated microorgnisms, developed resistance to white phosphorus. The work aimed at the determination of taxonomic rank of these organisms among similar ones. The study of morphological and biochemical changes in microbes in the course of their adaptation to the presence of xenobiotic and formation of new ecological niche presents one more important task of research. In this work five strains of streptomyces were compared concerning their antagonistic suppression of test–organisms from various taxonomic groups – bacteria, phycomycetes (yeast), one–cellular green algae and two weed herbs. Streptomycetes were isolated from different habitats (potato tubes, soil samples from various regions of the Earth, as well as the wastewater sludge, spoiled with white phosphorus), what determined the difference in their antibiotic activity. In particular, Streptomyces speciesА8 strain, isolated from the toxic sludge, contrary to the other ones, did not suppress at all the growth of the higher plants. Extreme environmental conditions probably allows streptomyces to do without production of its own toxins. Molecular–genetic analysis of 16S RNA gene is also performed aimed at determination of its strain rank. 

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INFLUENCE PROCESSING  BAV ON QUALITY AND ECOLOGICAL PURITY STEVIA

 Donets Inna Anatolevna

candidate of agricultural sciences, Stavropol State Agrarian University, Russia, Stavropol

Golyub' Anna Sergeevna

candidate of agricultural sciences, Stavropol State Agrarian University, Russia, Stavropol

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Stevia is a technical culture, the leaves of which contain sweet glycosides and are a valuable ecologically clean raw material for natural sugar substitute for diet food.  Influence of handling of stevia with biologically active substances on the quality and ecological cleanness is described in this article.  It was found that the organomineral fertilizers Darina 17 and Lignohumate of potassium, as well as microbiological agent Biofit 1 actively influence the cellular metabolism of agricultural plants and capable of increasing productivity and product quality of wheat, potatoes, sugar beet and others. The most effective was the complete machining (Lignohumate of potassium+ Darin 17 + Biofit 1). Using the developed method of handling green cuttings allows optimizing technology as producing seedlings and cultivation of stevia industrial scale.

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AGROBIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF ALFALFA VARIETIES IN THE ARID ZONE OF THE STAVROPOL TERRITORY

 Balatskaya Olga Yurevna

graduate student, Stavropol State Agrarian University, Russia, Mikhailovsk

Nesterova Margarita Viktorovna

graduate student, Stavropol State Agrarian University, Russia, Mikhailovsk 

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In the feed balance greater role along with other fodder crops play a perennial leguminous grasses. Main causes of low and unstable productivity of culture is a significant dependence of productivity from environmental factors, lack of varieties and hybrids, to fully meet the requirements of the zoning and intensive agriculture. The article presents the results of studies on alfalfa by optimal placement of varieties in accordance with environmental factors, its biological features and the introduction of varieties that combine yield potential genetic protection of crops from limiting environmental factors. Conducted testing led to the conclusion that in dry conditions Neftekumsk district, in whose territory is located Achikulak GUS, the most promising for obtaining high yields of hay varieties are Manychskaya and Rostov 90.

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FORMS OF SIMPLE AND COMPOUND FERTILIZERS AND THEIR APPLICATION IN CROP ROTATIONS OF AGROLANDSCAPES

 Belyuchenko Ivan Stepanovich

Doctor of Biological Sciences,  professor, Kuban State Agrarian University, Russia. 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinin street, 13, E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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Attempt comparison of different levels of influence fertilizers on soils, development of microorganisms and soil animals, terrestrial plants is made. The differences in the impact of simple and complex fertilizers are manifested in the efficiency influence of separate forms, duration of their active participation, in time the overall impact on soil conditions and the development of different forms of living organisms. The greatest influence on the development of whole system of agrolandscape among all types of fertilizers renders complex compost, formed on the basis of wastes of various productions - industrial and agricultural as well as household and natural. Complex compost  stands out the greatest wealth of organic and mineral dispersed systems supporting stable system of organic and mineral colloids. Equity participation of colloids invariably increases, thereby maintaining activity of the mixture by analogy with soil cover. Complex compost actively influences the activity of microorganisms, animal populations, as well as higher terrestrial plants and in general on the ecological niches of agrarian system.

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PROSPECTS OF SLUDGE TO INCREASE THE  PRODUCTIVITYOF SOILS HUMUS

 Kirillov N.A., Fadeeva N.A.

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The problem of disposing of sewage sludge is an actual problem of ecology for all mankind. The largest in the Chuvash Republic is a biological treatment plant near the city of Novocheboksarsk, which receives more than 1.2 million tons per year. Investigation of chemical composition of these sewage sludge showed that they on the content of major nutrients for plants are not inferior manure and when incorporated in doses up to 60 t / ha do not cause soil contamination of heavy metals. Before applying sewage sludge as an organic fertilizer is necessary to determine not only the chemical composition of  sewage sludge, but also to conduct a full agrochemical  investigation of soil for predicting the possibility of receipt of heavy metals, toxic elements in the lower and higher organisms. The objects of research were dark gray forest soils. Potato varieties Luck was planted in mid – May and harvested in mid-September. Research has shown that the application of sewage sludge at doses up to 60 t / ha does not lead in exceeding the MPC of heavy metals for the gray forest soils, and main indicators of fertility is improved significantly. Calculations of economic efficiency of application of sewage sludge at potato cultivation showed increase profitability by 60 and 80 % compared to the control. 

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 INFLUENCE OF DOSE PHOSPHOGYPSUM ON THE COMPOSITION AND AGRONOMIC PROPERTIES OF COMPLEX COMPOST

 Belyuchenko Ivan Stepanovich

Doctor of Biological Sciences,  professor, Kuban State Agrarian University, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinin street, 13, E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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The essence of the complex compost is a joint composting of wastes of life, industry and agriculture. This defines therein of concentration of organic substance on level 4-6 norms in the upper layer, increases of concentration of nitrogen, especially ammonia, unmovable and movable forms of phosphorus, available forms of calcium, sulfur; this maintains a high level of silicon, trace elements, the concentration and ratio of dispersed and colloidal systems and their ability to retain moisture, porosity and other properties that improve the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of this layer of soil, which will be added to the compost after its "gestation". At composition of a complex compost important role played phosphogypsum - mineral waste obtained during the production of phosphate fertilizers after processing parent rock. Originally set dose of organic matter in the amount of 50 t / ha of cattle manure noticeably responsive to mixing with various wastes, but the most significant impact of phosphogypsum. Question of dosage of waste by mixing the organic waste has important economic, chemical and biological significance. This question is devoted to the most of the work. In industrial experience were exploring options 1, 3, 5, and 7 t / ha of phosphogypsum. Variations with introducing 5 and 7 t/ha were showed most favorable results by major criteria. Approximately the same results were obtained in a field experiment. When making 5 and 7 t / ha of phosphogypsum with the addition of about 57-58 t / ha of organic waste were obtained the most optimal economic assessment of sugar beet (productivity, sugar, marketability root crops) and improved biological indicators this culture - seed germination, development underground and overground part, state of the physical and chemical properties of the topsoil and mastering micro-organisms and animal population. 

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