NORTH CAUCASUS ECOLOGICAL HERALD

Registration certificate PI № FS 77-21756 dated 30 august 2005

 2015, Vol. 11,  № 4                                                              Theoretical journal

 Founded in 2005                                                   .           Gets out four times per year

  C O N T E N T S

 1. Abiotic bases of landscapes

UDK  581.5

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NUMBER AND MEAN FREQUENCY OF SPECIES IN PLANT COMMUNITIES OF THE WESTERN CAUCASUS WITH DIFFERENT ORGANIZATION MODELS

Akatov V.V.

Maikop State Technological University, ul. Pervomaiskaya 191, Maikop, 385000 Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ;

Akatova T.V.

Caucasian State Nature Biosphere Reserve, ul. Sovetskaya 187, Maikop, 385000 Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Eskina T.G.

Caucasian State Nature Biosphere Reserve, ul. Sovetskaya 187, Maikop, 385000 Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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The ratio between number and the mean frequency of plant species in closed subalpine herbaceous and scrub communities, open plant communities of the alpine screes and low-mountain shoals along rivers,  closed and open synanthropic communities on the Western Caucasus were analyzed. The frequency of species was valued in 0.5 m2 squares within 15-25 m2 plots. The results show that the ratio between species richness and the mean frequency of species can be defined by different process and be different in plant communities formed by species with different (C-, S- or R-) population strategy types. 

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THERMOSTAT-GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS OF WATER-HOLDING CAPACITY AND DISPERSITY OF SOILS  

Smagin A. V.

doctor of biological science, professor, Lononosov Moscow State University, Russia, 119992, Moscow, GSP-2, Leninskye gory; Institute of Forest Science the Russian Academy of Sciences. Russia, 143030, Moscow region., Sovetskaya, 21, p/o Uspenskoe, E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ;

Sadovnikova N. B.

PHD, researcher, Lononosov Moscow State University. Russia, 119992, Moscow, GSP-2, Leninskye gory;

Bashina A. S.

postgraduate,  Lononosov Moscow State University. Russia,  119992, Moscow, GSP-2, Leninskye gory;

Kirichenko A.V.

PHD, researcher, Lononosov Moscow State University. Russia, 119992, Moscow, GSP-2, Leninskye gory;

Vityazev V. G.

PHD, docent, Lononosov Moscow State University. Russia, 119992, Moscow, GSP-2, Leninskye gory.

 

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A simple not laborious method of quantitative assessment the water retention energy (thermodynamic water potential) and the effective specific surface area of soils on the basis of their drying at different temperatures and weighing is proposed in this work. The scientific basis of the method used previously developed the fundamental relationship between the potential of water and temperature of drying, as well as the theories of Polanyi and BET for vapor sorption by surface of dispersed media. The experiment was carried out in laboratory ovens at temperatures ranging from room temperature (23°C) to  82-105oC corresponding to the absolute values of water potentials from 100 to 600 (800) kJ/kg for soil samples of silty-sandy, light loamy, medium loamy granulometric content  and eutrophic peat. The resulting estimate of the effective specific surface area ranged from 10 (sand) to 250 (peat) m2/g and is in full accordance with the data of dynamic gas-chromatographic method for determining the sorption isotherms and specific surface area, taken as a reference.

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ECOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL ANOMALIES OF GREATER CAUCASUS AND AZOV-KUBAN LOWLAND

Onopriyenko M. G.

candidate of technical sciences, associate professor, Sochi State University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 354000, Russia,  Sochi, st. Soviet 26a.

 

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Geochemical anomalies of Greater Caucasus and the Azov-Kuban lowland were considered. Examples of anomalies influence on the health of humans and other organisms which are within the areas of abnormal excess or deficiency some chemical elements and their compounds were presented. Examples of chemical anomalies of technogenic origin are shown, their causes, ways to protect them were indicated.

 

SEASONAL DYNAMICS HYDROCHEMICAL INDICATORS OF SMALL RIVERS PRIDNEPROVYA

Fedonenko E. V.

doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, Dnipropetrovsk National University Oles Gonchar, 49050, Ukraine, Dnepropetrovsk, Gagarin Avenue, 72, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. .

Ananieva T. V.

candidate of Biological Sciences, docent, Dnipropetrovsk National University Oles Gonchar, 49050, Ukraine, Dnepropetrovsk, Gagarin Avenue, 72, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. .

Zayets N. S.

assistant, candidate of Biological Sciences, docent, Dnipropetrovsk National University Oles Gonchar, 49050, Ukraine, Dnepropetrovsk, Gagarin Avenue, 72, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. .

 

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Established seasonal and annual changes hydrochemical indicators of water quality Wolchya River. It was determined water hardness, the concentration of dissolved oxygen, pH, nitrite, nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and biological oxygen demand. During the studies revealed no excess of regulatory values studied hydrochemical data. The results indicate that in the district. Wolchya mineralization processes occur seasonally. Ecological condition of the river is satisfactory and meets acceptable standards.

 

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PHOSPHOGYPSUM AND ECOLOGICAL SAFETY VALUE ITS APPLICATION

Vyshpolsky F. F.

Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, leading researcher at department "Reclamation and Ecology irrigated lands", Kazakh Research Institute of Water Resources, Kazakhstan, 080003, Taraz, Koygeldy street, 12, E- mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Bekbaev R. K.

doctor of technical sciences, professor, Kazakh Research Institute of Water Resources, Kazakhstan, 080003, Taraz, Koygeldy street, 12, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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Struggle against secondary soil salinization by applying leaching irrigation regime reduces the productivity of irrigated lands and leads them to seal. This worsens the economic situation of agricultural companies. For prevention soil compaction using phosphogypsum, whose reserves exceed 6 million tons in South Kazakhstan. Phosphogypsum particularly effective on alkaline soils, improves physical and chemical properties of soils, provides of plants of mobile forms of phosphorus, and improves crop yields. For prevent contamination of irrigated land should to be substantiated ecologically safe dose of phosphogypsum application. These norms can install at quantitative indicators revenues of toxic substances per unit of introduced meliorant, and it is expedient to conduct calculations on element, who had first to reach critical limits - is fluorine (for phosphogypsum). The chemical composition of phosphogypsum Taraz's factory of mineral fertilizers and ecological safety norms of its application to soil were considered in article. Norms phosphogypsum not more than 15.4 t/ha for fluoro, 400 t/ha for zinc and other elements, and in case the quality requirements of the groundwater respectively not more than 2 t/ha and 340 t/ha - ecological safety.

 

FEATURES OF SOLONETSIZATION AND ALKALIZATION OF SOIL AND METHODS THEIR REMEDY IN THE CONDITIONS IRRIGATION

Bekbaev R. K.

doctor of technical sciences, professor, Kazakh Research Institute of Water Resources, Kazakhstan, 080003, Taraz, Koygeldy street, 12, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Zhaparkulova E. D.

Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor, Kazakh Research Institute of Water Resources, Kazakhstan, 080003, Taraz, Koygeldy street, 12, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

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Modern methods of salinity control in Kazakhstan and Central Asia leading to alkalization and solonetsization of soils due to the substitution of calcium with magnesium in SAC. A large part of irrigated soils acquires the properties of takyrs, which are characterized by unity and a low rate of water absorption. In conditions of Southern Kazakhstan to increase productivity this soils it is expedient to use acidic meliorant phosphogypsum in combination with organic materials, water-saving irrigation technologies and application of chemical meliorants. The results many years of research to establish solonetsization and alkalinization processes occurring in the root zone of soils under irrigation of agricultural crops are shown in the article. The main methods of increasing the productivity of degraded irrigated soils were established on basis of generalization of research results.

 

QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF WATER RETENTION ENERGY AND DISPERSION OF SOIL COLLOIDS ACCORDING TO THEIR DIFFERENTIAL DRYING

Smagin A.V.

doctor of biological science, professor, Lononosov Moscow St. University; Lononosov Moscow State University. Russia, 119992, Moscow, GSP-2, Leninskye gory; Institute of Forest Science the Russian Academy of Sciences. Russia, 143030, Moscow region. Sovetskaya 21, p/o Uspenskoe, E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ;

Sadovnikova N. B.

PHD, researcher, Lononosov Moscow State University. Russia, 119992, Moscow, Leninskye gory;

Bashina A. S.

postgraduate,  Lononosov Moscow State University. Russia, 119992, Moscow, Leninskye gory;

Kirichenko A.V.

PHD, researcher, Lononosov Moscow State University. Russia, 119992, Moscow, Leninskye gory.

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The main hydrophysical  characteristics (water retention curves) and  the effective specific surface of soil colloids estimation is carried out from the classic data of colloids thermogravimetry and on the basis of the previously proposed the fundamental relationship between the thermodynamic potential (Gibbs  specific energy) and the temperature. The absolute values of water retention energy (thermodynamic water potential) at temperatures of colloids dehydration from 27 to 500 °C range on 150-4000 kJ/kg. Calculated from the desorption isotherm of moisture on the basis of the BET theory the effective surface area colloids characterized by values of about 1000 m2/g. The derivation of the formula for the conversion of water content in colloids depending on the temperature of arbitrarily "absolutely dry" state is given. Using standard procedures of dehydration of colloidal materials at the boiling point of water leads to an overestimation of the mass of "absolutely dry" state and, as a consequence, to a substantial (up to 25%) decrease in their dispersion and other quantitative parameters, normalized by mass of the solid phase.

 

ORGANIC AND MINERAL WASTES AS BASED ON COMPLEX COMPOSTS

Belyuchenko I. S.

Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor of Kuban State Agrarian University, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinin street, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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The most important scientific approaches to creating of complex composts with inclusion in them of individual wastes of household, agricultural and industrial production are analyzed in this article. The results of effect of complex compost  when making into the top layer of soil on its physical, chemical and biological characteristics, as well as on the development and productivity of plants which are of great interest for agricultural production, are summarized. When mixing wastes of individual  productions in complex compost is dominated by many biogenes that are of greatest interest to living organisms - calcium, nitrogen, carbon, potassium, sulfur, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, copper, manganese, and others. Part of the biogens is released and goes into absorbing complex with a significant concentration in the solid substrate In process of formation of complex compost and in process of decomposition, dissolution, desorption and exchange biogens with the participation of the most important microorganisms and macrofauna. Complex compost when incorporated in the soil improves it's properties of upper layer and feeding conditions of large number of living organisms. The composition of complex compost is determined by species and population of bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, unicellular algae and other organisms. Application of complex compost in soil significantly replenishes topsoil nutrients and above all calcium, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and potassium. Adding of compost into soil a complex improves the structure of the upper layer, its water, air, heat and food regimes, as well as a significant impact on the productivity of crops, increasing their productivity and product quality. Combining of various wastes creates a stable soil aggregates; it significantly improves the physical, chemical and biological properties. With introduction of complex compost soil is characterized by mutual coagulation of positively charged particles with negatively charged humates and silicon based on which coagels are structured which determining the basis of its fertility.

2. Biotic features of landscapes

INDICATORS OF REFORESTATION PROCESS ON THE NORTHWEST CAUCASUS

Akatov P. V.

candidate of biological sciences, employee "Center of intellectual geoinformation technologies Adyghe State University." Russia, 385000 Maikop, st. Pervomayskaya 208, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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The causes and manifestations of disorders and degradation of forest vegetation, as well as the process of reforestation in the North-Western Caucasus were analyzed. The forests of the Krasnodar Territory and Republic of Adygea were divided to categories according to the degree of disturbance and the nature of the violation, as well as stages of reforestation. Preliminary assessment of the current dynamics of the forests in the region on the basis of foreign studies it was given.

 

THE EFFECT OF THE AMARANTH PHYTOMASS ON THE WHITE PHOSPHORUS BIODEGRADATION RATE

Mindubaev A. Z.

candidate of chemical sciences, Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry A.E. Arbuzov, KSC RAS, Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Minzanova S.T.

candidate of Technical  Sciences, Associate Professor, Senior Researcher, Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry. A.E. Arbuzov, 420088, Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan, ul. Arbuzov 8.L.G.

Mironova L. G.

research Engineer, Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry A.E. Arbuzov, Kazan Scientific Center RAS 420088, Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan, ul. Arbuzov 8.

Belostotsky D.E.

candidate of Technical  Sciences, Senior Researcher, Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry. A.E. Arbuzov, 420088, Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan, ul. Arbuzov 8.L.G.

Alimova F. K.

doctor of biological sciences, Professor, Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Yahvarov D. G.

doctor of chemical sciences, associate professor, Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry A.E. Arbuzov, KSC RAS, Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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Agricultural plants of the AmaranthusL. genus are rich in protein, balanced by amino acid composition, what makes them a valuable food and feed raw material. The purpose of the research is to study the influence of amaranth phytomass on the processing of white phosphorus by sewage (wastewater) sludge (WWS). To reduce the lag phase of WWS microflora growth the plant biomass - the pulp of amaranth (A. cruentus L) plant, which is an effective stimulant of methane fermentation, has been added to control and test. In one experiment, amaranth phytomass was not added. The presence of amaranth phytomass in the WWS significantly accelerates the process of adaptationof the microflora to white phosphorus, which is due, primarily, to its nourishing properties. In the experiment without adding amaranth phytomass to WWS long lag phase presented - activation of the gassing was observed only after 100 days of the experiment.

 

3. Problems of wastes. IV International scientific ecological conference

GENERATION OF WASTE AND PROSPECTS OF THEIR USE IN CROP ROTATION (IV International scientific ecological conference)

Belyuchenko I.S.

candidate of agricultural sciences, doctor of biological sciences, professor, Kuban State Agrarian University, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinin street, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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Wastes of production and consumption, including organic, mineral and organic-mineral compounds, change of conditions of natural and anthropogenic landscapes. Modern man considerably influences on natural systems, adjusting them to fit your interests, constantly causing profound contradictions of society and natural environment. The impact of man on nature is enhanced every year - compared to natural phenomena several times, causing floods, fires, and many other processes, accompanied by increasingly large negative consequences. This is determined by the increase in population and according to many scientists significantly exceeds environmental standards. Strengthening human economic activities significantly increases the rate of use of natural resources and to reduce their inventories. The anthropogenic impact on the environment leads to a global catastrophe in the temporal scale. The most important condition of preservation of biosphere is the soil cover, which performs major ecological functions and defines the basic mechanisms of management system. In this connection soil cover is estimated as serious protection to human pressure in the overall system landscape. Basic reports are devoted to wastes of agricultural and forestry production and prospects of their use in agricultural landscapes.