NORTH CAUCASUS ECOLOGICAL HERALD

Registration certificate PI № FS 77-21756 dated 30 august 2005

 2019, Vol. 15,  № 4                                                          Theoretical journal

          Founded in 2005                                                         Gets out four times per year

  

C O N T E N T S

 

 

INFLUENCE OF BURNING OF STUBBLE ON THE BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF AGROLANDSCAPE SOIL

Belyuchenko I. S.
professor, doctor of biological sciences, Kuban state agrarian university named after I. T. Tru-bilin, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinina street, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Melnik O. A.
associate professor, candidate of biological sciences, Kuban state agrarian university named af-ter I. T. Trubilin, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinina street, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The holistic picture of functioning of soil microflora in the agrolandscape is under consideration. The state of microbial complexes and chemical characteristics of soils during the annual plowing of stubble plant residues, as well as during their burning, is compared. Studies were conducted on ordinary cherno-zem in the conditions of the Leningrad region of the Krasnodar territory. The negative effect of burning stubble residues on soil properties was noteed. This was manifested in a decrease in the content of humus and nitrogen in the soil, an increase in a number of heavy metals (zinc, lead, cadmium and cobalt) in the arable layer. The difference in options (non-burned and burned areas) in the ratio of microorganisms in microbocenoses was revealed. Thus, as a result of the annual burning of stubble dominant forms of mi-croorganisms in the microbial community are redistributed, most stable bacterial populations are devel-oped and proportion of soil fungi is reduced with the emergence of new thermotolerant species are in-creased.
Key words: soil, microflora, frequency of occurrence, coefficient. 

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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF ACIDIC BROWN FOREST AGROGENE-MODIFIED SOILS ON THE DYNAMICS OF SUBSTRATE-INDUCED RESPIRATION

Rogozhinа E. V.
Researcher of the laboratory of Agrochemistry and soil science of the ALL-Russian research Institute of floriculture and subtropical crops, Russia, 354002, Sochi, Jan Fabrizi-us street, 2/28

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 Using the method of substrate-induced respiration, the dynamics of CO2 emission for 3 days of brown forest acidic soil of a tea plantation (many years of experience with macro fertilizers, N240P70K90) was studied in comparison with the reference soil of a beech-hornbeam forest (Uch-Dere settlement, Lazarev-sky district Sochi). The heterotrophic parameter of the “health” of the soil of the tea plantation relative to the standard (forest) was calculated. Values from | 0,3 | up to | 0,39 |, showed a change in biodiversity and the ratio of functionally active populations of soil microbocenosis under the influence of tea cultiva-tion (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze). According to the existing gradation, the soil was rated as "moderately not healthy."
Keywords: acid brown forest soils, tea plantation, the "health" of soil, microbiocenosis, CO2 emissions, substrate-induced respiration of soils, in the humid subtropics of Russia. 

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ECOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF FOREST STRIPS AND THEIR ROLE IN THE OPTIMIZATION OF AGROLANDSCAPES

Belyuchenko I. S.
professor, doctor of biological sciences, Kuban state agrarian university named after I. T. Trubilin, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinina street, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 An important factor in optimizing the agrarian landscape is forest strips that regulate the consumption of nutrients by plants, their ability to vegetative and seed propagation, biochemical changes in vegetative structures, which provide resistance to changing environmental conditions. A variety of species, a change in their morphology and abiotic characteristics of the environment has led to new forms of forest strip or-ganisms (different height, color, size of vegetative above-ground shoots, growth of underground struc-tures - different types of roots, rhizomes),
Key words: seasonal development, formation of generative organs, ability to different types of reproduction, tolerance, agrolandscape, divergence of the species. 

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MOBILE PHOSPHORUS CONTENT IN FOREST BELT SOILS

Teuchezh A. A.
associate professor, candidate of biological sciences, Kuban state agrarian university named after I. T. Trubilin, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinina street, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 This article summarizes the results of studies on the content of mobile phosphorus in the soils of forest strips studied economy "Precepts of Ilyich" Leningrad region, Krasnodar region. The main inputs of phosphorus into the soil of crop rotation fields are due to mineral fertilizers, while phosphorus in the soils of forest belts and natural lands is increased by two sources; transboundary transfer due to the release of this element into the air during the works of chemical enterprises, landfills, incineration of garbage as well as due to its receipt from the exchange Fund of underlying rocks during its removal by plant roots from the lower layers of the soil. The supply of phosphorus from both sources is relatively small compared to fertilizer inputs. Nevertheless, the uniformity of the average indices of its compounds can be seen in large areas. According to the results of monitoring studies, it can be noted that in soil samples of crop rotation fields, the phosphorus content, both within individual seasons and on average over the years, was lower than in the soils of forest strips by 10-15% with relatively low standard error and coefficient of variation. We determined the content of phosphorus in the soils of forest belts, where phosphorus fertilizers have not been introduced for a long time and their receipt is possible only due to weathering from the fields of crop rotation and their introduction into forest belts, as well as cross-border transfer from chemical enterprises of the Rostov region, which borders the Leningrad region studied by us. More stable and stable levels of phosphorus in the soils of forest strips, in particular, are the result of its higher total content, less pronounced alienation from the crop, as well as higher and stable moisture compared to field conditions. Taking into account the close proximity of fields and forest belts, on the one hand, and the influence of South-West wind flows in summer and South-East in spring, on the other hand, causing the transfer of soil particles from arable land to the forest strip and from the forest strip of the litter, fruits, leaves to the arable land. The obtained data can characterize the entire territory of the farm by the content of mobile phosphorus, and the generalized version for all zones characterizes fairly objectively the entire agricultural landscape by the concentration of the element in the upper layer of the soil. In the soils of the forest belts around 20-30% lower for non-combustion area field crop rotation than to burn.
Key words: soils, content, forest strips, mobile phosphorus, agricultural landscape, crop rotation, fertilizers. 

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INFLUENCE OF DEGREES OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION ON THE DYNAMICS OF RELAXED TREE AT CRITICAL RECREATIONAL LOADS

Beliuchenko I. S.
Doctor of biological sciences, professor, Kuban State Agrarian University, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinina street, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Scherbina V. G.
Candidate of biological sciences, Sochi branch of Natural and Technological Systems In-stitute, Russia, 354024, Sochi, Kurortny prospect, 99/18, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The studies were carried out in four forests of the Sochi region in stands with 8–9 hornbeam units at stages IV–V of recreational digression. It has been established that in the suburban forests the proportion of weakened stands is statistically significantly in the range of 51,6–75,3 %. It was determined that during stage IV digression in a very clean and clean air environment, only the recreational factor (46 %) affects the stand. In relatively and moderately polluted environments, the influence of the recreational factor decreases to 36 %, with increasing exposure (up to 43 %) of the air. At stage V, the state of the stand depends on 25–85 % of the degree of environmental pollution and 11–30 % of the recreational factor.
Key words: Sochi region, recreation, air pollution, forest stand, digression. 

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PECULIARITIES OF FORMING COMPLEX COMPOST ON THE BASIS OF HALF-BAKED CATTLE MANURE AND PHOSPHOGYPSUM

Antonenko D. A.
candidate of agricultural sciences, Kuban State Agrarian University, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinin Street, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Nikiforenko J. Y.
candidate of biologicaal sciences, Kuban State Agrarian University, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinin Street, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Melnik O. A.
candidate of biologicaal sciences, Kuban State Agrarian University, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinin Street, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 Issues of creating agricultural technologies for organic farming are relevant and promising for the Kuban. Therefore, the preparation of composts based on various organic and mineral waste is proposed by us. The revival of composting on an industrial scale is an important solution to the problem of not only recy-cling wastes, but also increasing soil fertility. The results of studies aimed at finding the optimal ratio of half-rotten cattle manure and phosphogypsum as part of complex compost are presented in the article. Three different composts, differing in the proportion of phosphogypsum in their composition, are pre-sented. The slower mineralization of organic carbon, the active conservation of nitrogen in the ammoni-um form, the accumulation of phosphates and the optimal medium reaction are noted in composts dur-ing composting of these wastes. Composts were characterized by loose composition, fine-grained, low density and high porosity.
Keywords: complex compost, cattle manure, phosphogypsum, composting, organic carbon, total and ammonia nitrogen, medium reaction, density, moisture, mature compost. 

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ANALYSIS OF DATA OBTAINED WHILE GROWING OF SPRING RAPE WITH THE USE OF EXTRACTS FROM PHOSPHOGYPSUS AND CATTLE MANURE

Melnik O. A.
associate professor, candidate of biological sciences, Kuban state agrarian university named after I. T. Trubilin, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinina street, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 A scheme of statistical processing of experimental data based on laboratory experience in studying the effect of extracts from wastes (cattle manure, phosphogypsum and their mixtures) on the growth and ini-tial development of crop (spring rape) is given. The scheme includes: 1) determination of the main (selec-tive) characteristics using the MS EXCEL program and analysis of each experimental variant separately for the studied biometric parameters of seedlings; 2) a comparative characteristic of the obtained data on the variants of the experiment using the parametric criteria of statistics: the Fisher criterion and the Student criterion. The results of statistical processing of the data of the experiment showed the signifi-cance of the difference (according to both statistical criteria) of the biometric parameters between the op-tions. The positive effect of nutrient media (extracts from waste) on the root system of spring rape (its length and biomass) was revealed.
Keywords: laboratory experience, waste extracts, cattle manure, phosphogypsum, spring rape, biometric parameters, descriptive statistics, data reliability, comparative characteristics, parametric statistics criteria. 

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STRUCTURE OF SOIL MICROMICETES AGAINST APPLICATION OF HERBICIDES ON COTTON AND VEGETABLE CROPS

Muhammadiev B. K.
candidate of biological sciences , associate professor, Tashkent State Agrarian University, Uzbekistan, Tashkent, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Kurbanmuradov B. B.
Volgograd State Agrarian University, Russia, 400002, Volgograd, Avenue Universitetsky, 26

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 In given article one of the primary goals was a revealing in the conditions of the Tashkent area soils the mikobiot against action of herbicides: it is noticed that on cotton crops Kotoran and Fyzilad super. Were applied a result 57 species of micromycetes from 24 genus have been revealed. Experiments spent show that the structure of micromycetes is less various that testifies the influence of kotoran and fyzilad on volume of mikobiot.
Key words: soil mycobiota, bactericidal, fungicidal, argicidal, cellulose-depleting, fungi, plant residues, herbi-cides, agrocenosis. 

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CULTURAL MEDIUM COMPOSITION SEARCH FOR EFFECTIVE BIODEGRA-DATION OF WHITE PHOSPHOR

Mindubaev А. Z.
Budgetary–Funded Institution of Science A.E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry of Kazan Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, Republic of Tatarstan, mindubaev– This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Babynin E.V.
Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University. University St., Russia, Republic of Tatarstan, 18. Kazan, 420008

Badeeva E. K.
Budgetary–Funded Institution of Science A.E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry of Kazan Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, Republic of Tatarstan

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 The biodegradation of white phosphorus is undoubtedly an amazing illustration of the adaptability of living organisms to adverse environmental factors. In addition, it is a potential basis for the creation of new, breakthrough methods for detoxifying substances of the first class danger. However, establishing the fact of biological destruction is only half the battle. It is essential to optimize the growth conditions of microbial cultures and P4 biodegradation for industrial cultivation. The presented study compared the growth of Aspergillus niger strain AM1 in culture media varying in composition but containing P4 as the sole source of phosphorus. Of the ten media, two in which Aspergillus grew the fastest were selected. These media were concluded to be optimal for growth. Comparing the compositions of the media and the growth rate of Aspergillus in them, we found a key component that is a favorable factor for the growth of AM1 and the biodegradation of white phosphorus. This component was sodium nitrate (NaNO3). It has also been shown that copper sulphate (CuSO4) has NO effect on the growth of Aspergil-lus in media with white phosphorus, regardless of the composition of these media. This result is in har-mony with our previous findings. Furthermore, in the present work, attempts to increase the concentra-tion of white phosphorus in the culture medium to values above 1 % are described for the first time. For this purpose, we added the following solvents to the culture media: dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and die-sel, in which white phosphorus dissolves relatively well. Apparently, the presence of these substances ad-versely affects the growth of Aspergill. Therefore, the problem of further increasing the concentration of P4 remains an unanswered.
Key words: white phosphorus, Aspergillus niger, culture mediums, growth factors. 

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DEVELOPMENT OF NEW ECOLOGY CLEAN EXTINGUISHING TECHNIQUE FOR FAST STOP FIRES AT THE RADIOACTIVE FOREST OF CHERNOBYL AREA SINCE MAY, 1986

Zakhmatov V. D.
Prof. veteran of Chernobyl Disaster, St. Petersburg University of the State Fire Service EMERCOM of Russia., Russia, 199178, Sankt-Petersburg, Моscow av., 149, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Kutuzov V. V.
Ph. D., veteran of Chernobyl Disaster, professor of the Department of Fire Engineering, FSBEI HE St. Petersburg University of the State Fire Service of the Ministry of Emergen-cies of Russia, Russia, 199178, Sankt-Petersburg, Моscow av., 149

Onov V. A.
Head of the Center for Organization of Research and Editorial Activities of the Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Education Sankt-Petersburg University of the State Fire Service of the Ministry of Emergencies of Russia, Russia, 199178, Sankt-Petersburg, Моscow av., 149,

Bulatov V. O.
Ph.D. Deputy special department training, Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Education, St. Petersburg University of State Fire Service of the Ministry of Emer-gencies of the Russian Federation, Russia, 195105, St. Petersburg, Moskovsky prospekt, 149, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Shcherback N. V.
Ph.D. Lead Designer, LLC ZOLA, 198095, Russia, St. Petersburg, ul. Promyshlennaya, d. 19, office. 301, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 Extinguishing of fires and fires of forests. Forest on highly radioactive areas of the Chornobyl NPP in 1986. controlled by information from constantly barracing helicopters fixing the foci of smoke and for-est fires. Large forest fires in the zone of Chernobyl are thrown out to a height of up to 1.5km of smoke, containing a multitude of particles, transuranium elements that enter the human body causing cancer. "Green Peace" recorded microparticles of transuranas in the EU and Turkey. Therefore, it is important to use information technologies: geographic systems and satellites for probing the Chernobyl zone, raions in the regions of Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. This will potentially create the best organization for extin-guishing forests and depositing radioactive smoke. The traditional extinguishing technique is low-effective, long extinguishes with high costs of environmentally harmful foaming agents and solutions. Success and time of extinguishing are unpredictable, making inefficient extinguishing control over infor-mation technology. New technique are described, provide security for firefighters, environmentally safe, quick quenching of natural materials and non-toxic extinguishing compounds by small masses. The analysis of the results of application of pilot samples of the new technology of universal spraying and quenching is given: aviation containers, multi-barrel modules on the tank chassis, manual fire extinguish-ers. They first demonstrated effective quenching with natural water, sand, soil, dust from distances up to 20–25 m. relatively safe when extinguishing grassland fires, burning bushes and individual trees.
Key words: pulse forest fire–fighting technology, conjugated problems of radioactive smoke out of |Chernobyl area, extinguishing multiphase reacting media, shock wave, combustion, experiment. 

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FLORISTIC FINDS IN THE CENTRAL CAUCASUS (WITHIN THE KABARDINO-BALKAR REPUBLIC)

Chadaeva V. A.
doctor of Biological Sciences, Tembotov Institute of Ecology of Mountain Territories of Russian Science Academy, Head of laboratory, Russia, Kabardino-Balkaria Republic, 360051, Nalchik, I. Armand Street, 37a

Tsepkova N. L.
Ph. D. (Biology), Tembotov Institute of Ecology of Mountain Territories of Russian Science Academy, Senior Researcher, Russia, Kabardino-Balkaria Republic, 360051, Nal-chik, I. Armand Street, 37a

Pshegusov R. K.
Ph.D. (Biology), Tembotov Institute of Ecology of Mountain Territories of Russian Science Academy, Head of laboratory, Russia, Kabardino-Balkaria Republic, 360051, Nalchik, I. Armand Street, 37a

Zhashuev A. Z.
tembotov Institute of Ecology of Mountain Territories of Russian Science Academy, Researcher, Russia, Kabardino-Balkaria Republic, 360051, Nalchik, I. Armand Street, 37a

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 New locations of 13 rare species of flora of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic were found during field in-vestigations in 2015–2017. Data on new localities of the species, their habitat preferences in region and their distribution are cited. The findings of isolated populations of Eremurus spectabilis M. Bieb., Anem-one sylvestris L., Iris pumila L., Neotinea ustulata (L.) R.M. Bateman, Pridgeon et M.W. Chase, Neo-tinea tridentata (Scop.) R.M. Bateman, Pridgeon & M.W. Chase, Trifolium polyphyllum (C.A. Mey.) Latsch, Paeonia tenuifolia L., Stipa pennata L., Phelypaea coccinea (M.Bieb.) Poir. provided new in-formation about the distribution and ecology of these rare species listed in the regional Red Data Book. Convolvulus lineatus L., Jacobaea othonnae (M. Bieb.) C.A. Mey. are proposed for inclusion in the new edition of the Kabardino-Balkar Red Data Book. Two valuable floristic objects have been identified in which many protected and rare plant species are concentrated.
Key words: rare plant species, floristic finds, Kabardino-Balkar Republic. 

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WATER QUALITY – THE MOST IMPORTANT ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR FOR REARING OF CALVES

Gorovenko A. N.
graduate student, Vitebsk State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Republic of Belarus, 210026, Vitebsk, Dovatora street, 7/11, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Medvedskaya T. V.
candidate of veterinary sciences, associate professor, Vitebsk State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, 210026, Republic of Belarus, Vitebsk, Dovatora street, 7/11.

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 Water is an essential component of the living environment of all living organisms, so the environmental safety of drinking water for animals has a significant impact on their productivity. The article is devoted to the problems of improving the health and productivity of young farm animals in agricultural enterprises of a number of Belarusian farms. Water samples were taken at different seasons of the year, twice a day, and examined by physicochemical parameters and the degree of bacterial contamination. For a complete la-boratory analysis, water was taken in a volume of 5 l from a bucket, drinking bowl and from a water sup-ply system inside the livestock building. It was established that the quality of water for drinking animals does not always meet hygienic standards and requirements in terms of iron, ammonia, ammonium salts, and transparency, especially in the Vitebsk region. These deviations are most frequent in the summer-autumn period. Exceeding the standards for coli-titer, especially in summer, was also noted. The authors consider the reason for the decrease in water quality to be poor quality maintenance of the watering equipment, in particular, failure to comply with the timing of disinfection.
Keywords: drinking water quality, transparency, chemical composition, coli-titer, hygiene standards, animal watering, young cattle, agricultural enterprises of Belarus. 

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ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY OF USE OF THE MEANS FOR SANITATION OF FLOORS IN ROOMS FOR TURKEYS

Medvedeva D. V.
graduate student, Vitebsk State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Republic of Belarus, 210026, Vitebsk, Dovatora street, 7/11, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Gorovenko M. V.
associate professor, candidate of Biological, Vitebsk State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Republic of Belarus, 210026, Vitebsk, Dovatora street, 7/11, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Medvedsky V. A.
head of the department of animal hygiene of Vitebsk State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, doctor of agricultural sciences, professor, honored scientist of the Republic of Belarus, Republic of Belarus, 210026, Vitebsk, Dovatora street, 7/11, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 Variants of litter material that is necessary for outdoor bird growing for moisture absorption and floor in-sulation are considered in the article. Litter material together with manure should not create environmen-tal hazards and can be used as fertilizer in the absence of toxicity. As a means for sanitizing the floor, a special preparation “Ultra-Sorb” is proposed. This preparation creates a favorable microclimate in aviary, reduces the humidity of the air and litter, the level of microbial and gas pollution; possesses bac-tericidal, fungicidal actions, inhibiting the development of pathogens. In general, the sanitary and hygien-ic conditions of poultry are being improved. The remedy consists of 80% natural ingredients and only 2% falls on chloromorin B. It is proposed to use the drug in the presence of animals 2 times a week. Given the possibility of eating litter, the product was tested for toxicity using biotests on rabbits and mice, as well as using freshwater ciliates according to the feed biotesting scheme. The benignity of turkey meat after us-ing the product was also determined. The results of the study showed the absence of toxicity with the drug and the preservation of the biological value and safety of poultry meat. The quality of the poultry meat of the experimental group was higher than that of the poultry control. Litter of birds using the de-veloped product can be applied to the soil without restrictions.
Key words: poultry farming, turkey keeping, litter material , Ultra-Sorb, bioassay, biological value of meat, eco-logical safety of litter. 

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REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF KARAKUL SHEEP SUR OF KARAKALPAK BREED TYPE DEPENDING ON THE CONDITIONS OF CONTENT IN THE NORTH-WEST OF KYZYLKUMOV

Urimbetov A. A.
doctorate student, Research Institute of Karakul breeding and desert ecology, Republic of Uzbekistan, 140103, Samarkand, M. Ulugbek street 47, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 Ways to increase the breeding productivity of Karakul sheep of the Karakal-Pak breed suras depending on the diet and seasonality of feeding for the breeding season in the conditions of North-Western Kyzyl Kum are given in the article. Karakul breeding is the most important agricultural sector of Karakalpak-stan, so increasing the number of livestock is very important, and the breeding of Karakul sheep. The ob-ject of the research was the herds of sheep of the Kara-Kalpak type surah in the pedigree farm in the conditions of North-Western Kyzyl Kum. The results of a study of the reproductive potential of sheep showed that to increase the number of uteruses a month and a half before the planned insemination or mating events, increased feeding of the sheep and a sufficient amount of balanced and succulent green fodder are necessary. Sheep also need concentrated feed of at least 1 kg per day per head. The individual characteristics of the animals were also taken into account to determine the best insemination period. For this, a constant monitoring of the behavior of the breeding individuals of the herd was organized. Obser-vations also showed that the period of hunting lasts for 1-2 days in sheep and is repeated after 3 weeks. Seasonality of sexual hunting is most associated with autumn and the beginning of winter. In extreme heat and extreme cold, hunting is weak.
Key words: Karakul sheep sur, mating, diet, seasonality, desert, Karakalpakstan. 

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