NORTH CAUCASUS ECOLOGICAL HERALD

Registration certificate PI № FS 77-21756 dated 30 august 2005

 2018, Vol. 14,  № 3                                                           Theoretical journal

 Founded in 2005                                                   .           Gets out four times per year

  

C O N T E N T S

ESTIMATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF LIVESTOCK WASTES ON THE ENVIRONMENT BY THE METHOD OF BIOTESTING 

Antonenko D. A.

candidate of agricultural sciences, Kuban state agrarian university named after I. T. Trubilin, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinina street, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Beliuchenko I. S.

doctor of biological sciences, professor, Kuban state agrarian university named after I. T. Trubilin, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinina street, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The results of the chemical analysis of organic wastes (pig manure and bird droppings), biotesting of various substrates with using wheat plants, are given in the article. Agrochemical researches data of substrates which were used for growing plants are considered. The favorable effect of pig manure and bird droppings in doses of 20 and 45 t/ha, phosphogypsum and biological preparation on growth, development and accumulation of biomass of wheat was revealed. The increase in mobile forms of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium when using organic wastes both in pure form and in combination with phosphogypsum and biopreparation was noted.

Key words: pig manure, bird droppings, phosphogypsum, biological preparation, chemical composition, biotesting, wheat, biomass, reaction of environment, plant nutrition, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium.

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ANALYSIS OF FILTRATION SEDIMENT OF JSC "KORENOVSKSUGAR" BY PHYTOTESTING METHOD

Antonenko D. A.

candidate of agricultural sciences, Kuban state agrarian university named after I. T. Trubilin, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinina street, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Gorban M. A.

master, Kuban state agrarian university named after I. T. Trubilin, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinina street, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The results of the analysis of waste of sugar production (defecate) by method of biotesting with using radish seeds are examined in the article. The investigated waste is distinguished by an alkaline reaction of medium; change in the reaction of medium towards the neutral is noted when defecate mixed with phosphogypsum. Defecate and mixtures of defecate and phosphogypsum favorably influence the germination of radish plants and their development. The best indicators of the length of sprout and its main root are typical for the variant where the watering of seeds was carried out with an aqueous extract from a mixture of phosphogypsum + defecate in the ratio 1 : 10. This is also confirmed by the minimum values of inhibition effect.

Key words: sugar production, defecate, phosphogypsum, biotesting, higher plant, radish, seeds, length of sprout and its main root, inhibition effect.

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WATER-SAVING TECHNOLOGY PERFORMANCE IN PLANTING AND RECONSTRUCTION OF OPERATING VINEYARDS

Beibulatov M. R.

Doctor of Science in Agriculture, Head of Agrotechnology Department of the Federal State Budget Scientific Institution “All-Russian National Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking “Magarach”, Russian Academy of Science”, Yalta, Crimea, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Urdenko N. A.

Cand. Agric. Sci., Senior Staff Scientist, Agrotechnology Departmentof the Federal State Budget Scientific Institution “All-Russian National Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking “Magarach”, Russian Academy of Science”, Yalta, Crimea, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Tikhomirova N. A.

Cand. Agric. Sci., Senior Staff Scientist, Agrotechnology Departmentof the Federal State Budget Scientific Institution “All-Russian National Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking “Magarach”, Russian Academy of Science”, Yalta, Crimea, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Buival R. A.

Cand. Agric. Sci., Staff Scientist, Agrotechnology Department of the Federal State Budget Scientific Institution “All-Russian National Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking “Magarach”, Russian Academy of Science”, Yalta, Crimea, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The newest developments of the chemical industry for agriculture allow us to use polymeric materials - absorbents for water-retaining technology characterized by a high degree of water absorption. When planting new vineyards, the absorbent is introduced into the root layer, which favorably affects the growth and development of the plants saving water resources at the same time. Vine seedlings with a well-developed root system become more resistant to unfavorable climatic conditions, which contributes to their greater survival. The use of the water-saving preparation "AQUAPASTUS" improves the survival rate of the vine seedlings from 99.5% to 100%; the growth intensity expressed in an increase in the mean length of the shoot from 17.9 to 28.6%, the diameter of the trunk - by 9.1%, the leaf surface area by 1.53 times, as well as water stress resistance.

Key words: absorbent, hydro-gel, filler, survival rate, growth, development, grape seedlings, structure, water, absorption coefficient.

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INTERCONNECTION OF MESOFAUNA WITH MAIN COMPONENTS OF AGRARIAN LANDSCAPES

Beliuchenko I. S.

doctor of biological sciences, professor, Kuban state agrarian university named after I. T. Trubilin, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinina street, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 Serozems leached during the creation of agrarian phytocenoses of perennial grasses of summer development are intensively populated with soil mesofauna and, above all, with collembolan, which are the most important factor of soil formation. Soil invertebrates are the most important functional and diagnostic components of biological communities. They decompose plant residues, participate in the processes of humification and mineralization of organic matter, in its distribution along the soil profile, in the enrichment of deep horizons by the products of the decomposition of plant remains. Collembolan are an important part of the soil mesofauna. They are represented by many species widespread in cultivated soils, meadows, forest fringes in the studied agrocenoses .

Key words: mesofauna, collembolan, Devonian.

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RELATIONSHIP OF SOIL, HIGHER PLANTS AND MICROMICETTE IN COMBINED SOWINGS IN THE AGROLLDSHAFT SYSTEM

Beliuchenko I. S.

doctor of biological sciences, professor, Kuban state agrarian university named after I. T. Trubilin, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinina street, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 Species differences of micromycetes, which take an active part in the transformation of biogenic elements in the soil of agricultural landscapes, provide a wide activity of other components of the agrolandscape and its functioning as a curative system. Micromycetes take an active part in the transformation of biogenic elements in the soil, providing vital functions to other parts of the agrolandscape and its functioning as an integrated system. The change and the introduction of new of crops in crop rotations ones for advisable for reducing the negative manifestations of monoculture. When cultivating specific crops in the soil, certain communities of micromycetes are formed, among which are found both useful and pathogenic forms.

Key words: growth inhibitors, heterotrophic organisms, pathogenic forms, rhizosphere, rhizoplane, micromycetes.

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THE ESTIMATION OF INFLUENCING OF CLIMATIC FACTORS ON THE BIOPRODUCTIVITY OF AGROLANDSCAPES 

Zubov A. R.

doctor of agrarian sciences, professor, the head of the department of hydrometeorological safety, Lugansk national university named after Vladimir Dahl, Lugansk People's Republic

Zubova L.G.

doctor of technical sciences, professor, the professor of department of hydrometeorological safety, Lugansk national university named after Vladimir Dahl, Lugansk People's Republic

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 Multifactor dependences of the productivity of winter wheat, winter rue, millet, oat, barley, sunflower, corn, buckwheats in the conditions of north part of the Lugansk area from climatic factors for long-term period are established.

Keywords: agrilandscape, bio-productivity, air temperature, atmospheric presipitation.

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CONTENT OF ORGANIC MATERIAL IN SOILS OF AGROLAND-SCAPES AT THE USE OF COMPLEX COMPOST

Melnik О. A.

candidate of biological sciences Department of general biology and ecology, Kuban state agrarian university named after I. T. Trubilin, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinina street, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 Ecologization of agriculture should be aimed at maintaining ecological balance in agrarian landscape systems. Soil is the basis of any landscape. The main goal of ecologization is to find solutions of problems to soil contamination and increase their fertility. One of the directions of ecologization is the use of complex composts on the basis of wastes of livestock, life, plant residues and mineral constituents (phosphogypsum). Features of the change in the basic agronomic properties of chernozem in the territory of the agrolandscape (on the example of JSC "Zavety Ilyich" of the Leningrad region of the Krasnodar territory) with introduction of complex compost are discussed in the article. Analysis of soil properties in the field experiment with using complex compost on the rotation field (corn – winter wheat – sugar beet – winter wheat – sunflower) is carried out. The experiment was carried out in two versions: control (NPK norm) and complex compost + NPK. Compost was introduced into the soil once under corn. Positive effect of compost on such soil characteristics as the content and stocks of organic matter, nitrogen content, soil density was noted. Aftereffect compost was observed for several years. Correlation analysis and statistical processing of the studied indicators were used to evaluate the reliability of the results. Correlation analysis and statistical processing confirmed the effectiveness of the use of complex compost and its positive relationship with the content of organic matter in soils.

Keywords: agrolandscape, soils, complex compost, cattle manure, phosphogypsum, content and stocks of organic matter, soil density, total and ammonium nitrogen.

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OXIDATION OF WHITE PHOSPHORUS BY A CULTURE OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER AM1. APPEARANCE OF A MUTANT CULTURE

Mindubaev A. Z., State Budgetary-Funded Institution of Science A. E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry of Kazan Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences

Voloshina D.V., State Budgetary-Funded Institution of Science A. E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry of Kazan Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences

Khayarov Kh. R., Kazan (Volga region) federal university, Kazan 

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 Previous works of our research cycle on biodegradation of white phosphorus has demonstrated a number of new and interesting results, yet unknown to the scientific world. It is imperative that the described phenomenon be studied in more detail. For example it is still unknown if the microorganisms play active role in the detoxification of white phosphorus or only utilize the products of its abiotic oxidation; as to whether the components of the culture media play a significant role in this process and whether the final product of the transformation is a harmless phosphate or a mixture of substances which include a phosphate compound. Without an explicit answer to these questions, it will be impossible to generate a technology for the biological neutralization of white phosphorus. In this work presented, we used the method of NMR to study the dynamics of the transformation of white phosphorus in a culture medium containing colonies of Aspergillus niger AM1 in comparison with sterile culture medium. Results revealed that the product of white phosphorus conversion is a mixture of phosphate, phosphite and hypophosphite. Despite the fact that Aspergillus is unable to oxidize phosphite and hypophosphite, it is completely resistant to these compounds, which are known to possess pronounced fungicidal properties. Nevertheless, it is still early to announce the absence of biodegradation. Further studies are required under different conditions (especially, culture media with different compositions) and with other microbial cultures. A very interesting and unexpected result was the discovery of a mutant A. niger AM1. In comparison with an ancestral strain this mutant possesses an unusual morphology and grows more intensively in culture medium with white phosphorus.

Key words: white phosphorus, Aspergillus niger АМ1, culture medium, nuclear magnetic resonance, mutation.

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INFLUENCE OF REAGENTS AGAINST ICE ON THE QUALITATIVE COMPOSITION OF TOTAL WASTEWATER WATER FROM THE SELITABLE TERRITORY

Novikova O. K.

Ph. D. of technical, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the department "Ecology and Energy Efficiency in the Technosphere" Establishment "Belarusian State University of Transport", Republic of Belarus, Gomel, Kirova St. 34, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. .

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 The work is devoted to the study of anti-ice reagents and evaluation of the qualitative composition of melt waste waters under the influence of the reagents used. The results of experimental studies of the qualitative composition of thawed sewage from various areas of Gomel (Republic of Belarus) are presented. Scientifically grounded recommendations for reducing the negative impact of reagents on the qualitative composition of surface wastewater have been developed.

Keywords: melt sewage, anti-ice reagents, environmental pollution.

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QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF MANURE FERTILIZER

Teuchezh A. A.

Senior lecturer, candidate of biological sciences, Kuban State Agrarian University named after   I. T. Trubilin, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinin street, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The quality of organic fertilizers such as manure was discusses in the article. Manure is one of the most important and most common organic fertilizers. The quality of manure depends on the type of farm animals, feed, litter used, storage methods and shelf life. About 40 % of organic matter, 80% of phosphorus, 50–70 % of nitrogen, and up to 90% of potassium comes in manure from feed, which is consumed by farm animals. Manure is richer in minerals, when animals are fed nutritious feed, the more protein they contain. The use of litter that absorbs large amounts of urine and improves the quality of manure. As a litter for manure is straw, peat. Especially high-quality is considered a litter of sphagnum peat. It reduces nitrogen losses to a minimum. When using 2 kg of peat per head of cattle, they are 25 %. In order for the turf to better absorb liquid excretions of animals, it should be dry. Litter is considered to be of better quality if it itself contains nutrients and rapidly decomposes in the soil. It is important to store the manure properly, otherwise it can lose a large amount of nutrients. First of all, nitrogen is lost, which can be washed out or transferred to a gaseous state and evaporate. For reduce the loss of nitrogen, mineral phosphorus fertilizer should be added to the manure: for 1 ton of manure – 15–25 kg of phosphate or superphosphate. Phosphorus fertilizers should be added to fresh manure and thoroughly mixed. This procedure is easier to carry out in the following way: to scatter phosphorus fertilizer on manure in the barnyard in the absence of animals on it. When cleaning manure and folding it into the manure storage, the fertilizer will mix well with the manure. Phosphorus added to manure contributes to the better development of microorganisms. When manure is not intended for long-term storage, the optimal dose of superphosphate is 1–2 %. Compost from manure with phosphorus fertilizer has a greater efficiency than fertilizer made separately. On the one hand, more nitrogen is stored in manure, on the other hand, manure contributes to better assimilation of fertilizer by plants. Such compost is used in a dosage that is twice less than usual manure. The quality of manure depends on its chemical composition, and the nutrients present in it are absorbed by plants with a different utilization factor than in mineral fertilizers.

Key words: manure, quality of organic fertilizers, cattle, farm animals, litter, mineral substances.

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USE OF MICROELEMENTS CHELATES AT CULTIVATION OF HARICOT BUSH PLANTS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.)

Syshchykov D. V.

candidate of biological sciences, Public institution "Donetsk botanical garden", Donetsk People's Republic, 283059, Donetsk, Ilyicha ave., 110; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Prikhodko S. A.

candidate of biological sciences, Public institution "Donetsk botanical garden", Donetsk People's Republic, 283059, Donetsk, Ilyicha ave., 110

Udodov I. A.

candidate of chemical sciences, Public institution Research institute "Reaktivelektron", Donetsk People's Republic, 283096, Donetsk, Bakinskikh comissarov str., 17a

Syshchykova O. V.

candidate of biological sciences, State educational organization of the highest vocational education " M. Gorky Donetsk national medical university", Donetsk People's Republic, 283003, Donetsk, Ilyicha ave., 16

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 As a result of the carried out researches on identification of effect of liquid complex microfertilizers on the basis of microelements chelates is recorded the increase in values of the parameters characterizing growth and development of plants at 25–80% at application of a combination the helated forms of microelements in the course of vegetation of Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants. Is shown the expediency of application of extra root processing of plants by a complex of microelements chelates after preseeding seeds processing as in the course of vegetation values of the studied growth parameters and also productivity in comparison with plants only after preseeding seeds processing increased by 20–50 %.

Keywords: chelates, microelements, haricot bush, growth, development.

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ALLIUM RAMOSUM L. (AMARYLLIDACEAE JAUME ST.-HIL.), A NEW INVASIVE SPECIES IN THE FLORA OF THE CAUCASUS

Chadaeva V. A.

doctor of Biological Sciences, Senior Researcher, Tembotov Institute of Ecology of Mountain Territories of Russian Science Academy360051, Kabardino-Balkaria Republic, Nalchik, I. Armand Street, 37a

Tsepkova N. L.

Ph.D. (Biology), Senior Researcher, Tembotov Institute of Ecology of Mountain Territories of Russian Science Academy, 360051, Kabardino-Balkaria Republic, Nalchik, I. Armand Street, 37a

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 Allium ramosum L. is native to mountain China and Mongolia, from whence it ranged as a meadow and undesirable plant across the mountains of Altai, Middle Asia and Siberia. Wild populations of the species have been recently recorded in natural biocenoses of Kabardino-Balkaria. A. ramosum has favourable adaptive responses to the conditions of the republic at the organism and population levels, and is characterized as a potentially invasive species. It enables to occupy plants-free areas in natural and transformed phytocenoses by means of intensive vegetative and seed reproduction. The average density of cenopopulations in this case is 20-23 plants per square meter; the yield is 1726-3360 seeds per square meter. The species is able to survive for a long time in conditions of increased interspecific competition, maintaining a density of cenopopulations 7,21 plants per square meter, yield – 554 seeds per square meter.

Key words: A. ramosum, cenopopulation, invasive potential.

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ECOLOGICAL AND FAUNISTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ICHTHYOFAUNA OF THE RIVER UNDA (ZABAYKALSKY KRAI)

Gorlachev V. P.

doctor of pedagogical Sciences, candidate of biological Sciences, Professor, head. laboratory of Applied ecology of Zabaikalsky state University, Russia, Zabaikalsky Krai, Chita, ul. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Eugene P. G.

researcher, Institute of natural resources ecology and Cryology SB RAS, Russia, Zabaykalsky Krai, 672014, Chita, St. name 16A, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The paper presents a General characteristic of ichthyofauna of the UNDA river, which was represented by 24 species belonging to 9 families. Despite the long-term use of the watercourse by gold mining companies, the river has a fairly high species diversity, which is obviously determined by the presence of the Onon river, where the UNDA flows. Onon river is home to wintering, feeding and migrating of the main fish species. Most of the fishing community is made up of representatives of the SEM. Carp. The type of food is dominated by benthophage.

Key words: R. UNDA, ichthyofauna, fauna complexes, spawning substrate, type of feeding, species diversity.

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PROBLEMS AND THE DIRECTIONS OF THE SOLUTION OF A QUESTION THE ORGANIZATION OF EXPORT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE FROM THE TERRITORY OF ROCK KISELEVA OF TUAPSINSKY DISTRICT OF KRASNODAR KRAI

Senchenko V. A.

labor protection senior specialist PAO RosteLekom Volgograd branch, gorod Volgograd, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Staseva E. V.

Associate Professor of Department of safety of technological processes and productions FGBOU VO "Don State Technical University", Russia, Rostov-on-Don. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. .

Kvitkina M. V.

graduate studentdepartment Safety of technological processes and productions FGBOU VO "Don State Technical University", Russia, Rostov-on-Don. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 Article is devoted to a question of protection of the environmental environment against the industrial and consumption waste which is formed in places of stay of excursions and tourists. The problem of the solution of a question the organization of export of municipal solid waste from the territory of Rock Kiseleva of Tuapsinsky District of Krasnodar Krai which is a nature sanctuary is considered. In the territory are absent a container for collecting garbage, the regular export of a wastage is not organized, there is no improvement. The question candidate solution, due to collecting money from tourists through travel companies, for the organization of export of the formed wastage of consumption from the territory of vacation spots of tourists is offered.

Key words: nature sanctuary, industrial and consumption waste, protection of the environmental environment.

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