NORTH CAUCASUS ECOLOGICAL HERALD

Registration certificate PI № FS 77-21756 dated 30 august 2005

 2016, Vol. 12,  № 1                                                                Theoretical journal

 Founded in 2005                                                   .           Gets out four times per year

  

C O N T E N T S

 

1. Abiotic foundations of landscapes

 

 ESTIMATION OF THE ONTOGENY STAGE DURATIONS FOR HERBACEOUS PLANTS, SPECIFICALLY ANTHYLLIS VULNERARIA L.

Kazantseva E. S., Medvedev V. G., Onipchenko V. G.

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The new method of estimation of the ontogeny stages duration and plant lifespan was developed. The proposed method is based on a discrete ontogeny description and on the probability theory and random processes. Marked individuals from short-lived alpine plant species Anthyllis vulneraria were studied in the Northwest Caucasus in Russia on a height of 2800 m. We found out that the stage duration of young individuals (seedlings, juvenile and immature plants) of Anthyllis vulneraria is 0.8±0.09 years, adult vegetative – 1.1±0.2 years, generative – 0.7±0.05 years. Lifespan is 2.6±0.3 years, with a life expectancy of – 1.9±0.4 years. 

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THE COMPLEX OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND LANDSCAPING IN ARID REGIONS

 Smagin  A. V., Sadovnikova N. B.

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A brief analysis of the problem of formation of a sustainable, environmentally-safe irrigated agriculture and landscaping in arid climates is given. The message contains a comprehensive solution based on a combination of various technologies and methods of cultivation of vegetable production in arid irrigated agriculture, the focus of which is the soil. It also contains links to a number of fundamental works of authorship in arid irrigated agriculture and landscaping, representing the most effective modern Russian materials (soil amendments) and soil engineering technologies based on them.

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ZOOBENTHOS OF ZAPOROZHSKOYE RESERVOIR

Fedonenko E., Yakovenko V.

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Structural and functional characteristics of zoobenthos were researched to estimate food supply of bentovorous fishes and to indicate the ecological status of Zaporozhskoye reservoir sites. In 2015 a seasonal dynamics of zoobenthos has been studied in upper part of the reservoir near Monastyrsky island. In spring 2015 zoobenthos sampling was performed at different sites of Zaporozhskoye reservoir including the sites undergone to sewage impact. It was found that despite pollution species diversity of zoobenthos was high at most sites of the reservoir. Zoobenthos abundance turned out to be maximal in winter and spring in Dreissena aggregations. Indexes and figures of zoobenthos showed the best ecological state of profundal muddy sand at reservoir upper part. The sites of sewage impact as well as profundal of reservoir lower part were estimated as the most contaminated.

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ASSESMENT OF TECHNOGENIC IMPACT ON SOILS OF AGRICULTURAL LANDS AND PROPOSALS FOR THEIR RECULTIVATION

 Titova V.I., Dabahova E.V., Vetchinnikov A.A., Shakhov S.S., Sencheva E.V.

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This article examines the types of technogenic impact on soils of agricultural lands. It was found that various construction and repair works may cause decreasing in nutrients content and humus, acidification and increase degree of soil density. Proposals for recultivation of such soils with types and doses of fertilizers were made.

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VARIATION FACTORS OF MOBILE FORMS OF HEAVY METALS IN SOIL

 Vodyanitsky Yu. N., Smagin  A. V., Yakovlev A. S.

 

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The reasons of variability of mobile forms of heavy metals in the assessment of soil contamination are analyzed. It is noted the possibility of a high (up to 50-200%) varying estimates of pollution of the same areas, depending on hydrothermal conditions of the season, time of sampling options for their storage and preparation for analysis. The experimental dependence of the mobility (access to the solution) of water-soluble substances from the soil moisture electrolytes is analyzed. Option adjustments pollution standards in the form of maximum allowable concentrations of mobile forms, taking into account the humidity is proposed. Hypothesis related to transformation of minerals and chemical compounds, when removing samples from the natural environment and in the transfer medium with low moisture and other gaseous composition and with a low selectivity of the extractants are shown.

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THE RATIO BETWEEN NUMBER AND MEAN FREQUENCY OF SPECIES IN PLANT COMMUNITIES WITH DIFFERENT ORGANIZATION MODELS

Akatov V. V., Akatova T. V., Eskina T. G.

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The ratio between number and the mean frequency of plant species in closed subalpine herbaceous and scrub communities, open plant communities of the alpine screes and low-mountain shoals along rivers, closed and open synanthropic communities on the Western Caucasus were analyzed. The frequency of species was valued in 0.5 m2 squares within 15-25 m2 plots. The results show that the ratio between spe-cies richness and the mean frequency of species can be defined by different process and be different in plant communities formed by species with different (C-, S- or R-) population strategy types.

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METHODICAL SUPPORT OF ENVIRONMENT IMPACT TECHNOGENIC OBJECTS ASSESSMENT

Kasimov A. M., Kozulya T. V., Yemelyanova D. I., Kozulya M. M.

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The paper describes the task of forming a new theoretical aspect of methodology for integrated environ-mental assessment system of natural and man-made objects. The algorithmic scheme of complex analysis formed for solving problems of ecological safety at natural and man-made systems with using MIPS and risk- analysis methods. The paper presents the results of theoretical analysis of environmental assessment of studies limestone wet waste gas desulphurization technology.

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APPLICATION IN COMPLEX COMPOST TO INCREASE SOIL FERTILITY

Belyuchenko I. S.

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Application in complex compost to increase soil fertility considered as a method of reducing the amount of pollutants by determining the doses of fertilisers, including organic and mineral substances, resulting in the reduction of various metals for their extreme concentration. The soil performs the functions of the active absorber destructive and neutralizing contaminants, taking into account protective properties of the soil. Of particular importance is the detoxification of soils and restoration of disturbed lands, as well as entering the soil heavy metals are subjected to various forms of transformation, depending on the soil properties and biological peculiarities of plants. The main factors affecting the mobility of heavy metals in soil, their transformation, the availability to plants are considered to be the solubility of their salts, the pH of the soil environment, the content of organic matter in the soil, particle size distribution, cation-exchange capacity, contamination of soils, specific features of cultivated crops. The most common way of soil protection is the transfer of heavy metals in an inactive form at high the use of high doses of organic fertilizers.

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IDENTIFICATION OF RESISTANT TO WHITE PHOSPHORUS ASPERGILLUS

Mindubaev A. Z., Validov Sh. Z., Voloshina A.D., Kulik N.V., Gorbachuk E.V., Minzanova S.T., Mironova L.G., Tukhbatova R. I., Alimova F.K., Yakhvarov D.G.

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In previous studies we have carried out the work with microorganisms inoculation on synthetic culture medium containing white phosphorus as a unique source of phosphorus, for the first time the culture re-sistance growth is shown as a result of targeted selection, biochemical analysis of the strain Streptomyces sp. A8 is performed. Thus the comparison of the sequences of ribosomal genes of the fungus, steadily metabolizing the white phosphorus, with sequences of the GenBank database, allowed us to identify this microorganism as a new strain of Aspergillus niger, to which we have assigned the number A. niger AM1. This microorganism is one of the first, capable of growing on culture media containing white phosphorus. In addition, for the first time recommendations to the practical application of fungal strains for detoxification of white phosphorus in natural media are made, based on the scaling of the studied process of biodegradation.

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2. Biotic features of landscapes

 

REGIONAL EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING – THE FORECAST FOR ADYGEA AND KRASNODAR TERRITORY

Akatov P. V. 

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The results of an analytical study the response of woody vegetation mountain and foothill areas of Ady-gea and Krasnodar region to climate change in the future it was shown. We give a description of current climate trends and forecast the most probable changes in climate in the study region.

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SEWAGE SLUDGE, DECONTAMINATION AND USE OF

Belyuchenko I. S. 

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Application of sludge to soil is gradually, evenly placed nutrients in the absorbing complex of the sub-strate, ensuring environmental safety of their use as fertilizers especially when their introduction or the in-troduction of complex compost. Reduction of soil acidity contributes to a significant increase in the amount of exchangeable bases (50 %) at the expense of calcium and magnesium, which increase the sorption capacity of soils and inactivate many mobile heavy metals. When the content of humus in the soil more than 3.5 % organic matter of sewage sludge also acts as a deterrent to the inflow of heavy metals into plants.

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3. Anniversaries

 

EIGHTIETH BIRTHDAY OF PROFESSOR OF SOIL SCIENCE JAUME BECH

Alekseenko V. A., Belyucenko I. S., Alekseenko A. V.

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One of the leading world researchers in the field of soil science, geochemistry, and ecology professor of the University of Barcelona Jaume Bech celebrated on January 30, 2016 his eightieth birthday. Jaume Bech is the Honoris Causa of 10 universities in Europe and Latin America. He is an author of more than 350 scientific papers, the Chairman of the scientific committee “Management and Reclamation of Mining Site Soils” of the International Union of Soil Scientists (IUSS). Despite the sanctions and closing of some joint international scientific projects, he keeps on feeling substantiated respect towards the Russian researchers and their discoveries. Jaume Bech participated in establishing and conducting of the International biogeochemical school of Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry in 1999, 2011, 2013 and 2015; Professor Bech is a Honorary Member of the Russian Dokuchaev Soil Science Society. Since 2015 he became a Member of the Editorial Board of the journal “The North Caucasus Ecological Herald”.

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