NORTH CAUCASUS ECOLOGICAL HERALD

Registration certificate PI № FS 77-21756 dated 30 august 2005

 2016, Vol. 12,  № 4                                                                Theoretical journal

 Founded in 2005                                                   .           Gets out four times per year

  

C O N T E N T S

 

NEW AMPHIPHILIC HYDROGEL AND ITS EFFECT ON WATER RETENTION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOIL SUBSTRATE IN THE PRESENCE OF SILVER

Smagin A. V., Budnikov V.I., Smagina  M. V., Sadovnikova N. B., Bashina A. S.

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A new type of polymer acrylic hydrogels with amphiphilic peat filler is designed for use in the agricultural sector. It is assumed the integrated use of the gel for the purposes of improving the water-holding ca-pacity of soils and their structural status, as well as to place in the rhizosphere of modern crop protection products in the swollen gel compositions. The most effective plant protection products is expected to be silver. In this connection, we investigated the impact of two types of strongly swelling polymer hydrogel (SSPH) on the water retention capacity of quartz sand in pure water and Ag+ solutions (10-100 mg/l). Water retention has been studied by author’s centrifugation method in a wide range of thermodynamic water potential up to 3030 J/kg. Both hydrogels – the Aquasorb preparation (Germany) with hydrophilic properties and high degree of swelling in pure water (700–1000 g Н2O/g) and the new Russian amphyphi-lic SSPH with a peat filler (degree of swelling 500-700 g Н2O/g) were very effective as water adsorbing soil conditioners in relatively small doses from 0.05 to 0.3% per mass. The water retention capacity of sandy substrate increases under SSPH impact by 2-3 times up to the level of native loamy sands and loams. Introduction of Ag+ to the water solution statistically decreases water retention of soil-gel compositions only for a biggest concentration of SSPH (0.3%) and ionic silver (100 mg/l).

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USE OF WASTE OF CONIFEROUS BREEDS OF TREES IN ZSHCHISHCHENNY SOIL

Merzlaya G. E., Bekuzarova S. A., Afanasyev R. A., Akanov E. N., Fomkina T. P., Kozlova A. V., Voronchihin V.V.

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Based on researches it is established that in case of cultivation of seedling of a cucumber application of a bird's dung in combination with watering by extract from cones of coniferous breeds – fir-trees and pines in case of which – an increase of elevated biomass in relation to watering by tap water is effective makes 81,6 %, and a gain of roots – 97,1 %. This reception has important agro ecological value as creates favorable conditions for growth and development of agricultural plants and at the same time provides utilization of organic waste.

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ROLE OF COMPLEX COMPOST IN DETOXIFICATION OF HEAVY METALS IN CHERNOZEM SOILS

Belyuchenko I. S.

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An important role of detoxification of heavy metals in the chernozem soils are playing higher plants and complex composts from different organic, mineral and organomineral components. Complex composts changed cationic composition of heavy metals, capable of forming insoluble compounds and specific adsorption clay and organic compounds and their complexation. When applying complex сompost into soil in plants there are certain changes associated with the occurrence of protective mechanisms and increased the antagonism of certain ions. The resistance of plants to heavy metals important factor is interaction between soil and structure of complex compost. One of causes of soil pollution with heavy metals is an imbalance in the soil-plant system.

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COMMON THERMOLYSIS OF POLYMERIC AND AGRICULTURAL WASTES

Torosyan G. O., Akopyan Zh. S.

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In this series of experiments a technology for production of liquid fuel has been studied by common thermolysis of polymeric wastes and walnut partitions or shells with heavy residues obtained from pyrol-ysis of wasted tires and other polymeric materials. As a result, a liquid mixture has been obtained, which contains a big amount of aromatic compounds. The analysis of the resulting liquid mixture has been done by high performance liquid chromatography.

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BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ROE AND JUVENILE FISH TISSUES UNDER THE VARIOUS ANTHROPOGENIC EFFECTS UPON RESERVOIR

Fedonenko E. V., Ananieva T. V.

 

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It had been found significant differences in the content of total protein and lipids in roe and tissues of ju-venile commercial fish from two areas of Zaporozhian Reservoir (Ukraine) with varying degrees of pollu-tion. In the biological samples collected at the contaminated area, the protein level was decreased signifi-cantly, whereas the contents of lipids were increased in comparison to the clean area. The results indicate a violation of protein-lipid ratio in the calf and biological tissues, when the deficit of plastic substances was compensated by the energy ones.

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ECO-PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICATION OF PRUSSIAN CARP UNDER ANTROPO-GENIC ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

Fedonenko E., Ananieva T., Sharamok T.

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Basing on the toxicological analysis of the two main sections of Zaporozhian Reservoir fishery – the low-er part and the Samara Bay, a high content of copper was found (7–8 fisheries MAC). In the water of Samara Bay the excess of manganese, lead and cadmium in 1.7, 1.5 and 2 times respectively was found. The character of correlations established between metabolic parameters of prussian carp blood serum (Carassius gibelio Bloch, 1782) and the accumulation of heavy metals in organs and tissues, revealed that copper, zinc, iron and manganese have the most significant effects on metabolic processes, regardless of their location in the body. Singularities of the observed metabolic changes point to chronic exposure of aquatic environment toxicological factors to fishing fauna in reservoir.

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SOME FACTORS OF NATURAL ORIGIN AS THREATS TO MAN AND THE ENVIRONMENT 

Onoprienko M. G. 

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The article gives a brief overview of some of the factors of a natural character, creating a potential threat to man and the environment (earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes, mantle degassing of the Earth, geopathic zones, forest fires, fires at oil and gas wells, the effect on humans of the near-earth space in connection with space exploration and use in life. Reflects the problems of the forest sector of the economy.

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IMPACT OF COMPOST ON BASIS OF WASTES ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CHERNOZEM ORDINARY IN CONDITIONS OF STEPPE OF KUBAN REGION

Antonenko D. A.

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The results of many years of field experience on assess of impact of complex compost composed of organic and mineral wastes, on the physico-chemical properties of ordinary chernozem in the steppe zone of Krasnodar region are analyzed in the article. Data on the effect of fertilizer on basic physical and physico-chemical of soil characteristics are given. Favorable influence of organic fertilizer and organic-mineral compost on the soil structure and composition, porosity and water capacity of chernozem ordinary are identified. Complex compost contributed to an increase of absorptive capacity of soil and improve the qualitative composition of soil-absorbing complex.

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POSSIBILITY OF DECONTAMINATION OF CONTAMINATION BY USING WHITE PHOSPHORUS

Mindubaev A. Z., Voloshina A. D., Minzanova S. T.

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Possibility of degradation of white phosphorus (P 4) under action of sewage sludge (WWS)of wastewater treatment plants is shown for the first time. It is shown that white phosphorus inhibits the growth of mi-croorganisms due to the formation of toxic intermediate products its degradation. Established that de-crease of concentration P4 is inversely proportional to duration lag-phase of growth and activity of meta-bolic process of microorganisms. Search metabolites of white phosphorus was conducted at work and way its metabolism was proposed. Crops of microorganisms of different taxonomic groups (fungi, strep-tomyces and bacteria) in synthetic culture environments containing white phosphorus as sole phosphorus source, were produced for the first time. In these environments, the microorganisms grow and did not ex-perience phosphorus starvation. It is the world's first example of inclusion of white phosphorus in cycle biosphere of element phosphorus. The highest concentration corresponds to the maximum permissible concentration of white phosphorus in wastewater 5000 times. For the first time shows the growth of sta-bility cultures resulting to directed selection. Comparison of sequences of ribosomal genes of fungus, that steadily metabolising white phosphorus, with sequences database GenBank, allowed the identification the microorganism as a new strain of Aspergillus niger, which we assigned a number A.niger AM1.

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USE OF THE COMPLEX COMPOST AND MANURE DRAINS PIG-BREEDING COMPLEXES FOR DETOXICATING OF CHERNOZEM SOILS

Tregubova V. V., Belyuchenko I. S.

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Pig manure, whether in solid or liquid state represent significant source of nutrient elements and organic matter for plant growth in agricultural production. Proper way to use complex compost and pig manure with appropriate agronomic recommendation ensure protection of soil and ground water. Combination of different methods of processing of pig manure allows achieving an effective result.

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INFLUENCE OF AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL WASTES ON CONTENT OF ORGANIC MATTER AT TYPICAL CHERNOZEM IN CROPS OF WHITE MUSTARD

Melnik O. A., Yakovina E. P.

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Problem of reducing of soil fertility is exacerbated due to loss of organic matter. Compensate for disad-vantage of organic matter in soil can correct selection of agricultural crops in form of grass mixtures, use of green manure, for example supposed to use of white mustard. It is a good green manure thanks to his char-acteristics of biology and ecology. The impact of agricultural (manure) and industrial wastes (phosphogyp-sum) on the development of plants white mustard and organic matter content in pot experience in spring 2016 on chernozem typical was investigated. Soil sampling for determining the content of organic matter was conducted in the autumn. The maximum indicators of germination were observed in variants with making phosphogypsum and mixtures of wastes (cattle manure + phosphogypsum), biomass is better formed in manure and mixture of wastes, that indicating the optimum combination of components. The biggest indicators of organic matter also observed in variant with the mixture of wastes.

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ALLOCATIO AND INTERACTION OF HEAVY METALS IN SOILS AGROLANDSCAPES

Popok L. B.,  Popok L. E.

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Aggravation of ecological situation in agricultural areas of Krasnodar region caused to large extent the accumulation of heavy metals (HM), which leads to a decrease in the quantity and quality of crop and livestock production, increase in population morbidity. HM are able to change many of properties of soil and decrease its fertility. Therefore requires new effective approaches to management of agricultural pro-duction with use of not only the systematic monitoring of HM, but also mathematical methods and modern computer technology, which will allow to track the laws their of accumulation and migration in components of agrolandscapes. Integrated monitoring of concentration of HM was conducted on the basis of JSC "Zavety Ilicha" Leningrad district of Krasnodar Krai by using areal filming in 2001 and 2006 years with a selection of more than 600 samples in different landscapes. Gross content and concentration of mobile forms of HM were determined. Data analysis showed that there is a positive correlation between gross content and mobile forms of metals, especially a clear relationship observed for copper and zinc. It is also shown that content HM in the soil is greatly affected by agrochemical parameters of soil, in particular the content of organic matter, humus and others. For this purpose, correlation analysis was carried, which revealed a statistically significant strong inverse relationship between humus and content of copper in soils of forest belts; relationship between moving zinc is weakly manifested, but significant enough positive correlation zinc with phosphorus compounds, which form sparingly soluble compounds with zinc. Also revealed a moderate inverse relationship between gross zinc and nitrogen-containing compounds, which confirms the enhancement the mobility of HM by content of nitrate and nitrite. The lowest intensity of gross accumulation HM observed in soils of forest belts, confirming their positive impact on the environment. Changes in the gross content of HM in the period from 2001 to 2006 years are minor, but there is clear tendency to accumulate of HM in the accumulation elementary landscapes, which presented by natural ecosystems.

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PROBLEM OF MANAGEMENT WITH SOLID HOUSEHOLD WASTES IN MUNICIPAL UNION TERRITORY CITY OF KRASNODAR

Teuchezh A. A.

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The article analyzes one of main ecological problems of Krasnodar and Krasnodar territory - the problem of handling municipal solid waste, which is comprehensive, covered all sectors of economy city and scope of population. Analysis showed that territory of municipal entity Krasnodar city operates one land-fill solid wastes and two pads for temporary storage of solid wastes. Currently, reuse and recycling of waste on territory of municipality Krasnodar is not performed and there is problem of formation of spon-taneous dumps. Qualitative characteristics of solid household waste are considered. Considered by mor-phological composition of SHW, which is for city of Krasnodar and Krasnodar territory specific is due to high content of disposable packaging and packaging wastes and few low content of food wastes. The article contains results definition of volumes and calculation density of SHW on territory of municipality Krasnodar. Density of SHW depends on character of building, the degree of accomplishment of adjacent territory, population structure, culture and trade. Individual components of wastes have different densities, and change their parity strongly influenced on average density of wastes in general. Studies have shown that currently has changed the structure of solid household wastes in city of Krasnodar. These changes are due primarily with increase in composition of wastes of proportion of packaging materials. In order to reduce the total weight of SHW transported of garbage trucks in rainy periods, it is recommended to use containers with lids. The main way to combat illegal dumps is ensure of city dwellers and legal entities round the clock accessibility of services for collection and disposal of SHW. Morphological composition of SHW varies according to climatic zones of Russia.

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INFLUENCE OF EXTRACTS OF SOME WASTES ON SEED GERMINATION OF WINTER WHEAT AND SPRING VETCH

Hahutsky V. V.

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Development of annual crops of cereals and pulses characterized by great similarity - from germination before harvesting. Features of influence of different extracts of wastes on development of winter wheat seeds and spring vetch are traced in the work. At the initial stage of germination of seeds when watering extracts of different wastes marked some features. The greatest interest is the germination of winter wheat, which is characterized by marked improvement of development of seedlings of this crop of dur-ing watering with extracts.

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