NORTH CAUCASUS ECOLOGICAL HERALD

Registration certificate PI № FS 77-21756 dated 30 august 2005

 2018, Vol. 14,  № 2                                                               Theoretical journal

 Founded in 2005                                                   .           Gets out four times per year

  

C O N T E N T S

 

THE DYNAMICS OF FEEBLE TREES NEAR THE TOWN OF SOCHINSKY COAST WITH ANTHROPOGENIC LOAD

Scherbina V. G.

Candidate of biological sciences, Sochi branch of Natural and Technological Systems Institute, Russia, 354024, Sochi, Kurortny prospect, 99/18, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Belyuchenko I. S.

Doctor of biological sciences, professor, Kuban State Agrarian University named I.T. Trubilin, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinin Street, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The digressive dynamics of the proportion of weakened trees in suburban forest stands of the Sochi coast is analyzed. It is determined that the synergistic effect from the technogenic and recreational effects is reliably manifested in the third stage of digression. The subsequent increase in the recreational load on forest ecosystems is accompanied by an increase in the share of technogenic negative manifestation, in the form of an increase of weakened trees.

Key words: Sochi coast, suburban forests, hornbeam, recreational load, man–caused load, digression.

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FUNDAMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF CONCENTRATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SOIL SOLUTION FROM WATER CONTENT AND ITS MATHEMATICAL MODELING

Smagin  A. V.

doctor of biological science, professor, Lonomosov Moscow State University, Russia, 119992, Moscow, GSP-2, Leninskye gory; Institute of Forest Science the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, 143030, Moscow region. Sovetskaya 21, p/o Uspenskoe; Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Russia, 117198, Moscow Miklukho-Maklaya str., 6. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ;

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 The concentration characteristics of the soil solution (activity, osmotic pressure, electrical conductivity) are not constant values and are associated with a universal fundamental dependence on the mass fraction of the liquid phase (moisture content) of the soil. This dependence has a complicated nonlinear form and is characterized by a single-peak extremum in the region of average moisture content (conditionally the maximum molecular moisture capacity). The increase in water content is accompanied by a decrease in the concentration characteristics, which is mainly due to the effect of dilution of the soil solution. The corresponding right branch of the dependence in a large range of variation in humidity is inversely proportional to the moisture content, which confirms the dilution mechanism. The decrease in humidity relative to the maximum molecular moisture capacity (left branch of the dependence) leads to a sharp decrease in the concentration characteristics up to conditionally zero values (not detected by the instruments of the middle class of accuracy) in the low humidity region (conditionally non-dissolving volume). This effect is explained by competitive molecular interactions between the surface of the colloid-dispersed complex of the solid phase of the soil and the free ions of the solution for molecular hydration. The original physico-mathematical models based on the lognormal distribution of the studied characteristics make it possible to adequately describe their fundamental dependence on soil moisture and automatically determine the values of its parameters of maximum molecular moisture capacity and non-dissolving volume.

Keywords: soil solution, concentration (activity), osmotic pressure, electrical conductivity, solid and liquid phases, interfacial interactions, thermodynamic (chemical) potential, colloid-dispersed complex, modeling.

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TO THE SYSTEMATIC  PHYTOTECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND ECONOMIC PROBLEMS OF THE TERR-KUMA SEMI-DESERT IN THE EASTERN CAUCASUS

Dzybov J. S.

дoctor of biological sciences, professor, Russia, 355045, Stavropol, Pirogova street, 38/1-9, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The semi-desert of the Tersko-Kum lowland in the Eastern Ciscaucasia differs from other regions of the Ciscaucasia in a system of extreme abiotic conditions: a sharply continental climate, a deficit of atmospheric moisture, youth and instability of the ecotope represented by solonetsous forest, clays and vast arenas of open, vegetation-deprived sands-the legacy of the multiple transgressions of the ancient Caspian Sea. On the other hand, nomadic herding (tabun, herd and flock for 7-8 thousand years, especially intensified during the Great Silk Road) in the last 2000 years transformed the primary semi-desert steppe with dominants from the Oatmeal of wallisian and rock, Keleria slender, Wheatgrass comb-shaped, species of feather grass and other less abundant virgin species in weeds, weed-annuals, low-productivity communities. The current state of wild flora and vegetation, some results of forest melioration carried out by ARSRIAFR and the Achikulak experimental station, as well as possible phytotechnological ways of restoration of the former grass ecosystem by the agro-steppe method are shown.

Key words: Semi-desert, Flora, vegetation, degradacion, agrosteppe, density of stocking, ecological niche.

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ANTHROPOGENIC CHANGES IN THE SOIL COVER IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRARIAN LANDSCAPES

Beliuchenko I. S.

doctor of biological sciences, professor, Kuban state agrarian university named after I. T. Trubilin, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinina street, 13,  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The main development of the system of restoration and improvement of soil fertility, the composition of complex compost, combined crops, forest belts are described in the article. The features of the formation of soil structure as a single complex of soil aggregates, their size and water resistance, determining the water, air, biological and food regimes are studied. In general, soil formation is a biological process determined by the development of living objects (vegetation and fauna, bacteria and fungi, algae and other unicellular ones). An important reason for the high productivity of soils is their structure and the stability of agrarian landscapes, erosion protection of soils, combination of crops, expressed in improving technology to increase production in the agrarian landscape. Great role in the formation of soils and their productivity of soil colloids - organic and mineral. Improving the training of specialists in the field of agriculture is of great importance.

Key words: soil fertility, soil structure, water, air and food regimes of soil, soil colloids.

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NEUTRALIZATION OF PHOSPHORORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

Torosyan G. H.

Doctor of chemical sciences, professor, head of the department of chembio and environmental technologies (ChBET) of the National polytechnic university of Armenia (NPUA), 0009 Republic of Armenia, Yerevan, Teryan 105, 1st building, 1201, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Petrosyan M.Z. 
candidate of chemical sciences (PhD), associate professor, ChBET of NPU
Simonyan A.A. 
aspirant (PhD student), ChBET of NPU
DavtyanV. A. 
candidate of technical sciences (PhD), Postdoctoral student of the Department of Chebio and Environmental Technologies (ChBET) of the National polytechnic university of Armenia (NPUA), Head of the Agency for Water Resources Management of the Ministry of Nature Protection of the Republic of Armenia. 0010 Republic of Armenia, Yerevan Anrapetutyan Square, Government House 3 (Kentron Adm.), 
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Torosyan N.T. 
candidate of technical sciences (PhD), associate professor, Acting Professor for Environmental Economics “Financial academy”, Director of the CSTO Yerevan Institute, President of Eurasia, 0038 Armenia, Yerevan, 6 Leningradyan St., Office 2, (Ajapnyak, Administrative District of Yerevan), 
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 The present paper contains a discussion of works devoted to the development of methods and technologies for adsorptive purification of organic pollutants, mainly organophosphorus compounds from the environment for the purpose of neutralizing them. General provisions on the purification of organic pollutants from the hydrosphere are discussed, where special attention is paid to regenerative methods for the isolation of organic compounds, in particular sorption / adsorption / methods of water purification. The peculiarity of adsorption purification methods as the most accessible and simple in technological implementation, as well as the most economically advantageous, that predetermines their application in countries with different economic and technological levels is noted. Here are given descriptions of the results of research carried out in recent years at the department of chemBio- and environmental technologies of the NPHU for the neutralization of organophosphorus compounds in aqueous media, using the example of the malathion pesticide and the drug armin.

Key words: neutralization, organophosphorus compounds, environment, purification methods, destructive, regenerative methods, adsorption, sorbents, zeolites, malathion, armin.

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SOIL MESOFAUNA OF AGRICULTURAL LANDS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF COMPLEX COMPOST

Nikiforenko Yu. Yu.

Candidate of biological sciences, FGBOOU WAUGH "The Kuban state agricultural university of I. T. Trubilin", Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinin St., 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The article presents the results of long-term studies on the impact of complex compost on the composition and number of soil invertebrates in the conditions of zero-tillage crop rotation. The studied territory is represented by agricultural landscapes, located in the Leningrad district of the Krasnodar region with a pronounced prevalence of the creation of chernozem soils. As a result of the work studied the basic properties of ordinary chernozem, revealed the quantitative and qualitative composition of herpetobionts on the crops of major crops and the transformation of its main groups. In areas where complex composting was introduced, there was a statistically significant increase in the number of earthworms (Lumbricidae), anchimeric (Enchitraeidae), kusakov (Julidae). In the course of studies it was found that due to the composition of complex compost (a mixture of organic and mineral waste) when it was introduced into the soil there was a decrease in its density, an increase in porosity and humidity, an increase in the content of organic matter, calcium, sulfur, pH neutralization, which mainly affected soil inhabitants.

Key words: soil mesofauna, complex, compost, black soil of the ordinary, agrolandscape, agricultural waste, phosphogypsum, organic-mineral complex.

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COMPLEX COMPOST AND RECULTIVATION OF THE CHERNOZEM OF THE ORDINARY AGROLANDSCAPE IN SYSTEM

Belyuchenko I. S.

Dr. sci. biol., professor FGBOOU WAUGH "The Kuban state agricultural university of I. T. Trubilin", Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinin St., 13,  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 Results of studying of interaction of colloidal particles of the soil and complex compost and their feature when mixing are generalized; some aspects of transformation of soil substances and organic and mineral waste are analyzed. In the present article the attempt to generalize the accumulated experience of studying and application of quantitative methods of the analysis of ecological data is made and also concrete results with the analysis for a research of ecological approaches are given.

Keywords: phosphite, PPK, EKO, colloids, aggregation, microorganisms, complex compost, humic substances.

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