NORTH CAUCASUS ECOLOGICAL HERALD

Registration certificate PI № FS 77-21756 dated 30 august 2005

 2019, Vol. 15,  № 3                                                          Theoretical journal

          Founded in 2005                                                         Gets out four times per year

  

C O N T E N T S

 

THE ROLE OF SOIL PROTECTION CROP ROTATIONS IN ECOLOGICAL STABILITY OF SLOPES

Gaevaia E. A.
candidate of biological Sciences, Federal State Budget Scientific Institution “Federal Ros-tov Agricultural Research Centre”, Russian Federation, Rostov region, Aksay district, p. Dawn, street Institute, 1. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The article presents the results of research conducted in the years 2016–2018 of the Studies were con-ducted in multifactor stationary experiment, located on the side of the beam, a Large Log, Aksai district, Rostov region, in the contour and landscape of the territory of the slope up to 3.5–4.0°. Two crop rota-tions of different designs with different percentages of perennial grasses and pure steam were studied. The aim of the research was to study the balance of humus depending on the degree of soil washout and identify the optimal ratio of crops in soil conservation crop rotations for environmental stabilization of eroded slopes of the Rostov region. Two main tillage systems and three levels of plant nutrition were studied. The influence of perennial grasses on the processes of soil runoff and flushing was studied, the coefficient of susceptibility to erosion processes was calculated. The role of perennial grasses in stabiliza-tion of humus balance on erosion–dangerous slope is noted. The doses of organomineral fertilizers in maintaining the humus balance were determined. The data obtained show that the use of 40 % fields of perennial grasses at fertilization dose of cattle manure 5 t + N46P24K30 maintains the balance of humus at the level of + 283–317 kg/ha, and increasing the dose of fertilizer to cattle manure 8 t + N84P30K48 – to 1068–1121 kg/ha.
Key words: erosion, runoff, coefficient of susceptibility to erosion processes, the balance of humus, soil-protective crop rotations. 

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FEATURES OF INTERACTION OF ROOT SYSTEMS OF HERBACEOUS AND WOODY PLANTINGS IN SHELTERBELTS

Dudchenko L. V.
candidate of biological sciences, senior researcher of the Department of fodder production Federal state scientific institution "North-Caucasian FNAC", Russia, the town of Mikhai-lovsk, Stavropol Krai

Communion E. N.
senior researcher of the laboratory of agricultural lands FEDERAL state scientific institu-tion "North-Caucasian FNAC", Russia, the town of Mikhailovsk, Stavropol Krai

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 The Study of the root systems of grass and Poplar black (Populus nigra) in the forest belt showed that the maximum volume of grass roots is concentrated within the depth of 0–40 cm from the soil surface, below their role is weakening. Within this depth, the weight fraction of roots accounts for 54 %. The dominance of the root system of the black Poplar (Populus nigra) begins with a depth of 50 cm, that is, the roots of two life forms (trees and herbs) in the process of consumption of moisture and nutrients, are sufficiently delim-ited vertically soil section, which reduces the competitive tension between them.
Key words: optimization of tree-grass ecosystems, area of roots distribution, forest belt, ground cover. 

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AGROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SODDY-PODZOLIC SOIL, PRODUCTIVITY OF CULTURES AND BALANCE OF NUTRITIENTS UPON LONG-TERM INTRODUCTION OF STRAW

Rusakova I. V.
PhD of biological science, Deputy director for Sciens, VNIIOU – branch of FSBSI “Ver-hnevolzhsky FARC”, Russia, 601390, ul.Pryanishnikova 2, Vyatkino, Vladimir oblast

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 This paper presents the results of research in a long field experiment on sod-podzolic soil. It has been es-tablished that repeated use of straw of cereals and leguminous crops in combination with mineral fertiliz-ers contributes to an increase in the potassium content in the arable layer of the soil, an increase in the productivity of grain cultivating crop rotation, optimizing the balance of nutrients.
Key words: straw, mineral fertilizers, sod–podzolic soil, agrochemical properties, balance of nutrients. 

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APPLICATION OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES AND BIOHUMUS IN RESTORATION OF THE IRRIGATIVE MEADOW-GREY SOIL FERTILITY

Asgarova G. F.
research fellow, Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry of ANAS, Azerbaijan,1073, Baku, M. Rahim 5, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 Modern agriculture is based on the study of changes in factors arising in the process of tillage. From this point of view, the study of fertility under the influence of mud waters of meadow–gray soils and alluvial–meadow soils of the Sabirabad region is of particular interest.We carried out a comparative study of the introduction results of biologically active substances on these soils, contributing to the improvement of the soils physical and chemical properties, allowing fertility to be restored.The studied soils provide information on the salt content, humus, pH, the amount of absorbed bases and other indicators.
Key words: meadow–gray soil, crop rotation, biologically active substances, biohumus, fertility restoration. 

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THE YIELD OF SPRING WHEAT IN DEPENDENCE FROM SCHEMES OF PLANT PROTECTION

Karimova L. S.
the candidate of agricultural sciences, associate Professor of Department of General ag-riculture, plant protection and breeding of the "Kazan state agrarian University", Russia, Republic of Tatarstan, 420015, Kazan, K. Marksa str., 65, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Talanov I. P.
doctor of agricultural sciences, Professor of the Department of Agrochemistry and soil science, Kazan state agrarian University, Russia, Republic of Tatarstan, 65, K. Marx str., Kazan, 420015, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Vakhitova L. S.
post-graduate student of the Department of General agriculture, plant protection and breeding, KAZAN state agrarian University, Russia, Republic of Tatarstan, 65, K. Marx str., Kazan, 420015, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The results of field and laboratory studies on the effectiveness of plant protection schemes for the for-mation of leaf area, the accumulation of dry biomass and the productivity of spring wheat are given in this paper. Research has established that in light gray forest soil conditions, the best photometric indica-tors of sowing and the formation of spring wheat yields occurred when applying complex plant protec-tion according to the Scarlet + Polyphide + Zircon + Accord + Dianat + Granstar + Puma super 100 + Polyphide + Zircon + Impact schemes. + Accord + Polyphide. ”With the introduction of calculated dos-es of macro and micronutrients.
Keywords: plant protection, leaf surface, dry biomass, photosynthesis productivity, yield. 

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ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION (FOR EXAMPLE, WASTE PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION)

Mongush S. P.
Junior researcher, laboratory of mathematical modeling, Russia, Republic of Tuva, 667007, Kyzyl, Internatsionalnaya street, 117a, Tuva Institute for the Integrated development of natural resources of the Siberian branch of the Russian academy of sciences (FGBUN TuvIKOPR SB RAS), This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The article analyzes the volume of waste generation of the population of the Republic in 2016. Identified the share of each district in the total amount of waste generated, but also defined its place in the rating according to the waste formed in the territory of the Republic. The main problems and reasons in the field of waste management are indicated. The main areas of soil pollution in the territory of the Republic are revealed.
Keywords: environment, waste, negative impact, territory, problem. 

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HISTORY OF CREATION OF FOREST PROTECTIVE BANDS IN KRASNODAR REGION AND THEIR CONDITION

Teuchezh A. A.
associate professor, candidate of biological sciences, Kuban state agrarian university named after I. T. Trubilin, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinina st., 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Belyuchenko I. S.
professor, doctor of biological sciences, Kuban state agrarian University named after I. T. Trubilin, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinina st., 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 This article describes the creation of forest belts in the region, their historical characteristics and state. Forest belts, or forest shelter belts, are protective forest stands in the form of rows of trees and shrubs cre-ated among arable land, pastures, gardens, along irrigation and navigable canals, railways and highways, along the edges of ravines, on slopes. Forest strips are created to overcome the harmful effects of dry winds on the crop, improve the water regime of the soil by retaining snow and reducing evaporation, to prevent soil erosion and the growth of ravines, and also to protect railways and roads from snow and sand drifts. The forest belts are part of protective forest plantations, which are used in steppe, forest-steppe and semi-desert areas with the objectives mentioned above, as well as for fixing sands. In places where forest belts are used, the condition of the soil improves, its saturation with oxygen increases, the amount of humus increases, and the flora becomes more diverse. Forest stripes attract birds and wild an-imals. Krasnodar Region is located in the steppe zone. Here one of the most fertile soils and a comforta-ble southern climate. But for decades it has rarely been possible to produce stable, high yields. The reason for all these troubles was the lack of forests. To cope with these serious problems, Andrey Timofeyevich Bolotov agronomist and writer in 1767, he proposed and substantiated the need for protection from the winds of the steppes with forests. The first decree on the cultivation of protective forests in the steppes. In the future, Russian scientists-agronomists developed a unified system of measures – grass farming sys-tem. Forest belts are characterized by the following indicators: design – blown, openwork and windproof (dense); shape – simple single-tier and complex – two-three-tier; method of sowing or planting – ordinary, nest, chess, etc.; origin – artificial and natural, seed and shoots. Shelterbelts are placed on the boundaries of land use and crop rotation fields, and at large field sizes – within the fields of rotation. Distinguish the longitudinal (main) – come across the prevailing dry winds, and erosion dangerous winds and transverse (secondary) forest belt. The distance between the auxiliary – up to 2000 meters or more. In the borders of fields laid by on-farm shelterbelts, mostly 4-row. Forest belts change the aerodynamic characteristics of wind and water flows, create a microclimate and increase soil fertility.
Keywords: forest belts, protective forest plantations, steppe, forest-steppe and semi-desert areas, trees, shrubs, events. 

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WINDBREAKS AS A FACTOR OF IMPROVING AGRICULTURAL LANDS AND ENHANCE THEIR LOCAL BIODIVERSITY

Belyuchenko I. S.
professor, doctor of biological sciences, Kuban state agrarian University named after I. T. Trubilin, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinina St., 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The review article discusses the multifunctionality of forest protection strips and their important role in maintaining the stability of landscapes and in particular agricultural ecosystems. The importance of for-est belts in soil reclamation is emphasized and their most significant ecological functions in the creation and improvement of microclimate in agricultural landscapes are indicated: reduction of wind speed and intensity of wind erosion in summer, which prevents blowing of the top most fertile soil layer; snow reten-tion and reduction of surface runoff of both melt and rain water, which contributes to the preservation of moisture reserves in the soil and also prevents water erosion. Increasing soil fertility through the preserva-tion of nutrient-rich and moisture-saturated upper substrate contributes to the productivity of crops grown in the fields. Artificial forest plantations create a favorable water and temperature regime, and this leads to an increase in the local biodiversity of ornitho-, entomo – and pedofauna. Forest belts diversify monotonous agricultural landscape, increasing its aesthetic appeal. The economic efficiency of forest belts can also have an additional benefit in the form of wood supply during thinning. Summarizes the types of forest and the most important methods in their proektirovaniy, placement and creation. In addi-tion to the theoretical justification of the need for forest plantations, as mentioned in the state plan for the transformation of nature from 1948. This article uses experimental data of the author showing the effect of shelterbelts on the moisture content of the soil and the yields of some crops. Negative processes in reducing the number of areas under forest belts due to their aging and neglect of the protective role of forest belts are also indicated.
Key words: forest protection strips, improvement of agricultural landscapes, forest plantations, soil erosion, gas-eous, liquid and solid substances, protection of small swarms, soil productivity. 

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FEATURES OF PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING OF RAW MATERIALS OF AGRO-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX WASTE-FREE TECHNOLOGY

Nafikov M. M.
doctor of agricultural sciences, Professor, Kazan (Volga region) Federal University, Rus-sia, Republic of Tatarstan, 420008, Kazan, Kremlevskaya str., 18

Nigmatzyanov A. R.
candidate of agricultural Sciences, Tatar Institute of retraining of agribusiness, Russia, Republic of Tatarstan, 420059, Kazan, Orenburg tract, 8

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 In most regions of the Russian Federation in today there is a highly developed agriculture, as well as pro-cessing enterprises, respectively, with a high concentration of resources for the production and production of biogas. The Privolzhsky and Southern federal districts account for about 58 % of the biogas potential. When processing all agricultural wastes and processing enterprises, it is possible to completely provide gas to rural areas (residential premises, social facilities, livestock buildings, fur workshops, etc.). Cultivated plants, one of which is sugar sorghum in the juice of the stems which contains from 14 to 21 % of sugars, can also be used to solve the problem of obtaining renewable (alternative) biofuels. In the Republic of Tatarstan, varieties and hybrids of sugar sorghum have been tested and zoned. The article on the basis of literary sources and conducted own research shows a set of industrial equipment and presents a scheme of the technological chain of waste-free production of biofuels, as well as fuel pellets from marc of sugar sorghum.
Key words: biogas, industrial waste, agriculture, resources, sugar sorghum, liquid biofuel, fuel pellets. 

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EFFECT OF DIVALENT COPPER ON WHITE PHOSPHORUS MICROBIAL METABOLISM

Mindubaev A. Z.
candidate of chemical sciences, senior researcher, associate Professor of the Institute of organic and physical chemistry A. E. Arbuzov, Kazan scientific centre of RAS, Russia, Re-public of Tatarstan, Kazan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Babynin E. V.
candidate of biological sciences, associate Professor of the Department of genetics, Kazan Federal University, Institute of fundamental medicine and biology, Russia, Republic of Tatarstan, 420000, Kazan, Universitetskaya str., 18, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Badeeva E. K.
researcher, candidate of chemical sciences, Institute of organic and physical chemistry A. E. Arbuzov, Kazan scientific centre of RAS, Russia, Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 Despite the duration and depth of research on the biodegradation of white phosphorus, until recently there were still doubts whether the biodegradation really did occur. White phosphorus, reacts with ions of divalent copper even at room temperature. and the Pridham-Gottlieb medium, which we have chosen for our purposes, contains copper sulfate in its composition. The addition of an emulsion of white phospho-rus led to the formation of a black precipitate, which is evidence that a chemical reaction took place. Thus, the growth of microorganisms occurred in the presence of not so much white phosphorus as the products of its chemical transformations, and the experiments were not completely clean. Therefore, in the present study, we carried out further modification of the Pridham-Gottlieb nutrient medium, exclud-ing from it not only phosphates as a source of phosphorus, but also copper sulfate. In addition, we com-pared the white phosphorus resistance of our A. niger strains AM1 and AM2, with three strains from the All-Russian Collection of Microorganisms (ARCM) (strains FW-650, FW-2664 and FW-2731), as well as four different bacterial species. Though highest resistance was observed in strain AM1, the three strains of A. niger, sent from ARCM, also showed a higher resistance to white phosphorus than the bacteria. It was shown that exclusion of copper sulfate from the composition of the nutrient medium with white phosphorus does not prevent the growth of fungi. In addition, white phosphorus does not react with the formation of a precipitate and remains for a longer period under these conditions. This fact is a serious argument in favor of biodegradation and has practical applicability in the method of microbial detoxifi-cation of white phosphorus. However, a higher resistance of AM1 in comparison to the ARCM strains was only observed in a medium with copper. Apparently, strain AM1 is most resistant to the toxic prod-ucts from the reaction of white phosphorus with Cu2+.
Key words: biodegradation, white phosphorus, Aspergillus niger, bacteria, minimal inhibitory concentration, culture media. 

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CONSTRUCTION ASPECTS OF REDUCING THE VOLUME OF SURFACE WASTEWATER FROM THE TERRITIES OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

Novikova O. K.
Ph. D. of technical, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the department "Ecology and Energy Efficiency in the Technosphere" Establishment "Belarusian State University of Transport", Republic of Belarus, Gomel, Kirova St. 34, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The work is devoted to the study of green roofs in industrial plants. Developed scientifically-based recommendations for reducing the volume of surface wastewater (rain and melt) discharged from industrial sites to the city’s rainwater sewer network through the construction of a “green roof”. The results of the calculation of the volume of surface wastewater discharged into the network of urban sewage from the site of the main and auxiliary production enterprises of agricultural engineering and their projected values in the device "green roof".
Keywords: rainwater, meltwater, green roof. 

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SURVIVAL AND GROWTH FEATURES OF THE CRIMEAN PINE FOREST CULTURES ON AVERAGE DON SANDS AT THE DIFFERENT LEVEL OF GROUND WATERS AVAILABILITY

Turchina T. A.
the doctor of agricultural sciences, the senior research assistant, the deputy director for scientific work, The Branch of the Federal Budget Institution “Russian Research Institute for Silviculture and Mechanization of Forestry” “South European Forest Research Experimental Station”, Russia, 346270 Rostov region, Veshenskaya, street Sosnovaya 59 «v», This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Bannikova O. A.
graduate student, engineer of the first category, The Branch of the Federal Budget Institu-tion “Russian Research Institute for Silviculture and Mechanization of Forestry” “South European Forest Research Experimental Station”, Russia, 346270 Rostov region, Veshenskaya, street Sosnovaya 59 «v», This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 In work comparative assessment of survival, linear gain of Crimean pine forest cultures on sands with the different level of the ground water occurrence is carried out (from 0,6 m and more deeply). Survival at different availability of ground water to plants roots has essential distinctions (tf = 2,48÷32,07 > tst = 2,73÷8,52). Influence of particle size distribution of sandy soils is shown in various share of the died plants upon termination of the first year of cultures growth. On crumbly sandy soils at the close ground water level (GWL) the died plants is 46,7% more, than at UGV of 1,2–1,5 m, on coherent sandy soils the difference makes 9%. Distinctions of linear gain are significant at the 0,1% level (tf =14,49 > t001 =3,67; Ff = 209,9 > F001 = 13,4). Features of plants rootage development are established. At depth of ground waters of 1,2–1,5 m the tap root forms, and at GWL of 0,6–0,8 m – fibrous root. Close GWL promotes dying off of plants rootage in the first year of growth. The upper limit of the optimum ground water occurrence for creation of Crimean pine forest cultures making 1,5 m is set.
Key words: Crimean pine, forest cultures, ground water level, survival, increment, root system. 

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NUTRITION AND GROWTH OF CRUCIAN CARP CARRASIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (BLOCH, 1782) AND PELED COREGONUS PELED (GMELIN, 1789) LAKE NOVOTROITSKOE (ZABAYKALSKY KRAI)

Gorlacheva E.P.
researcher, Institute of natural resources ecology and Cryology SB RAS, Russia, Za-baykalsky Krai, 672014, Chita, St. name 16A, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The paper presents the composition of food Peled and silver carp. The feed base of the lake is consid-ered. Novotroitsk in the off-season aspect Shows the role of individual components in fish nutrition. The characteristic of growth indicators of the studied species is given. The growth of fish, as well as the com-position of food reflect the development of the forage base of the lake. Peled eats Copepod and the fish feeds on detritus. The composition of the food lump in fish is not very diverse.
Key words: food supply, biomass, intensity of nutrition, food composition, fish growth. 

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DIVERSITY OF MICROMYCETES IN THE JUMGAL RIVER BASIN OF KYRGYZSTAN

Beksultanova A. M.
Institute of Biology National Academy of Science, Kyrgyz Republik, 265 Chui Avenue, Bishkek 720071, Kyrgyzstan720071, Kyrgyzstan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Mosolova S. N.
Institute of Biology National Academy of Science, Kyrgyz Republik, 265 Chui Avenue, Bishkek 720071, Kyrgyzstan720071, Kyrgyzstan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The article presents the results of the study of the species diversity of micromycetes of the Jumgal River basin of the Kyrgyz Republic for the period 2011–2018. Special studies on their study have not been conducted so far, so our research is new for this area. For the first time for Kyrgyzstan, one species was identified: Fusoma telimenellae. We have registered 223 species of fungi from 64 genera, 23 families, 10 orders. Marsupial mushrooms (Ascomycota) are represented by 150 species from 65 genera, from 4 clas-ses: Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Leotimycetes, Sordariomycetes. Basidial fungi (Basidiomycota) are represented by 68 species from 76 genera, 31 families, 4 classes: Agaricomycetes, Exsobasidiomy-cetes, Pucciniomycetes, Ustilagomycetes. Also mentioned 4 kinds of mushroom-like organisms of the or-der Peronosporales (Oomyota). Many types of fungi: powdery-mildew, rusty, smut and others are patho-gens of plant diseases and cause great harm in crops of forage crops and natural pastures. The species composition of feeding plants was studied – 111 species from 84 genera, 42 families. The greatest num-ber of fungi was noted on the representatives of the families Compositae, Rosaceae, Leguminosae, Um-belliferae, Labiatae, Poaceae, Polygonaceae, Caprifoliacae.
Key words: species, genus, family, order, micromycetes, fungi, fungi-like organisms. 

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