NORTH CAUCASUS ECOLOGICAL HERALD

Registration certificate PI № FS 77-21756 dated 30 august 2005

 2016, Vol. 12,  № 3                                                                Theoretical journal

 Founded in 2005                                                   .           Gets out four times per year

  

C O N T E N T S

1. Biotic features of landscape development

TNRANSPIRATION OF LAWN GRASSES DEPENDING ON THE TEMPERATURE: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

Smagin A. V., Bogatyrev L. G., Smagina M. V., Sadovnikova N. B., Gudima I. I.

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Experiments with lawn grasses and theirs seeds in a greenhouse and climate chamber at the optimum soil wetting allowed to evaluate the effect of temperature on the rate of water transpiration. In field experiment the transpiration values ranged from 3 to 10 mm/day at a temperature range from 22 to 49 ° C in the sun and from 22 to 32 ° C in the shade. Generalized according to field and laboratory observations dependence looked like a function with an extremum (maximum) of transpiration about 6-7 mm/day, falling to the temperature of 40 °C. approximately. The results are interesting for use as a boundary conditions in modern computer models of soil water mass transfer and plant productivity.

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ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF YOUNG FISH OF ZAPOROZHIAN RESERVOIR

Fedonenko E. V., Esipova N. B., Marenkov O. N.

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Comprehensive studies of ichthyocenosis of the Zaporozhian Reservoir coastal sites with different degree of anthropogenic load were carried out. It was found that in the areas with influence of technological and household wastewaters degradation of coastal ichthyocenosis structures occurs with significant domi-nance of low-value species, as evidenced by the high indexes of cenotic value, as well as morphological parameters of the juvenile fish are reduced if compared to those from environmentally safe areas. In areas with high anthropogenic load the various mechanisms of erythropoiesis adaptation to hypoxia conditions were identified in fry fish of different ecological groups.

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ECO-PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICATION OF PRUSSIAN CARP UNDER ANTROPO-GENIC ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

Fedonenko E., Ananieva T., Sharamok T.

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Basing on the toxicological analysis of the two main sections of Zaporozhian Reservoir fishery – the low-er part and the Samara Bay, a high content of copper was found (7–8 fisheries MAC). In the water of Samara Bay the excess of manganese, lead and cadmium in 1.7, 1.5 and 2 times respectively was found. The character of correlations established between metabolic parameters of prussian carp blood serum (Carassius gibelio Bloch, 1782) and the accumulation of heavy metals in organs and tissues, revealed that copper, zinc, iron and manganese have the most significant effects on metabolic processes, regardless of their location in the body. Singularities of the observed metabolic changes point to chronic exposure of aquatic environment toxicological factors to fishing fauna in reservoir.

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MODERN THREATS TO MAN AND THE ENVIRONMENT OF SOME FACTORS OF NATURAL ORIGIN 

Onoprienko M. G. 

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The article gives a brief overview of some of the factors of a natural character, creating a potential threat to man and the environment (earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes, mantle degassing of the Earth, geopathic zones, forest fires, fires at oil and gas wells, the effect on humans of the near-earth space in connection with space exploration and use in life.Reflects the problems of the forest sector of the econ-omy.

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THE COMPOSITION AND ABUNDANCE OF MICROARTROPODS IN PURE AND COMBINED SOWINGS IN CULTIVATED LAND

Belyuchenko I. S.

 

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Species composition of microarthropoda for growing combined sowing of herbaceous species were pre-sented in the article. Cultivation of certain species indicates a significant reduction species and population composition of plants. Using a combination of crops of different cultures appreciably broadens their species composition and population. Comparison of these two forms of growing points to possibility of expanding ecological niches when combined sowing, as well as a significant deepening penetration of certain arthropods in the lower layers of the vertical of their placement. Expansion of species and population composition of certain arthropods, particularly mites appreciably enhances the formation of organic matter and enrich their topsoil.

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COMPLEX COMPOST AND ITS USE TO PRESERVE AGRICULTURAL SOIL FERTILITY

Antonenko D. A., Belyuchenko I. S. 

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The results of long-term field experiments on evaluating the efficacy of using complex compost based on wastes to restore and maintain the fertility of agricultural land are considered and analyzed in the article. Data on effect of this fertilizer on chemical and physical characteristics of the soil are given. The trend of increasing concentrations of organic matter, total and ammonia nitrogen, mobile forms of phosphorus was found. Compost exerted favorable impact on physical composition of ordinary chernozem, its density and water-air properties.

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THE INFLUENCE OF COMPLEX COMPOST ON THE ABUNDANCE OF EARTHWORMS IN CULTIVATED LANDS

Nikiforenko Yu. Yu., Belyuchenko I. S.

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Reduction in the fertility of chernozem soils is a major environmental issue. The accumulation of large quantities of wastes leads to the deterioration of soil environment and its gradual degradation. At the same time, many types of wastes can be used as a raw material to produce complex composts. The paper provides the results of studies on the influence of complex compost on the population of earthworms (Lumbricidae) in ordinary chernozem. When complex compost is applied, which is a mixture of industrial and agricultural wastes, there is a statistically significant increase in the number of earthworms. This is due to the improvement of physical and chemical properties of ordinary chernozem. Complex compost has a positive effect on the chemistry of the soil, including the content of organic substance, nitrogen, and also neutralizes the response of the soil medium, improves the physical properties (reducing the soil density, increasing the humidity). Studies conducted in dynamics have made it possible not only to determine the one-time effect of the complex compost added to the soil, but also to establish the trends of its aftereffect. The use of this technology is of important practical significance.

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THE EMERGENCE OF PLANTS ONTO LAND AS A FORM OF ACTIVE EXPLORATION OF NEW ECOLOGICAL NICHES

Belyuchenko I. S.

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The first group of living organisms on land defined in the silurian simultaneously with the appearance of river systems. The first land community formed a climbing or creeping rhizomes with short stems straight, branching in the lower part. Cinevideogroup education of ferns were based korepodobnaya the adventitious rhizoids. The emergence of plants on land was accompanied by serious ecological and evolutionary changes and at the same time changing the substrate (sludge), which served as the basis for their settlement. The development of plants on land was identified very deep aspects of the functioning of their organisms, especially abiotic (formation of sludge and destruction of original protopov). As well as biotic factors (education of photosynthesis. Bacterial communities, etc.).

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ABOUT LATE BLITHE (PHYTOPHTHORA INFESTANS MONT. DE BARY) OF POTATO IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF TAJIKISTAN

Partoev K., Naimov A., Karimov I.

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As a result of the spent researches it is established that potato varieties at height of 800 m above sea level on the average are surprised late blithe on 24,67 % and at height of 2700 m above sea level it makes only 2,67 %. It testifies that at height more than 2500–2700 m above sea level, because of cleanliness of air, cool mountain weather and high solar insulation (especially ultra-violet part of the light), the phytophthora fungus cannot normally develop and cause illness of a potato plant. On the contrary, in the conditions of a valley, where conditions for normal growth and development of a fungus optimum (heat, damp and polluted air) degree of defeat of plants almost ten times more than in mountains.

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THE DEVELOPMENT OF MICROARTHROPODS IN SOILS NET AND COMBINED CROPS OF PERENNIAL AND ANNUAL GRASSES

Belyuchenko I. S.

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Soil invertebrates are an important component of ecosystems in determining its fertility. Invertebrates are involved in the process of humification and mineralization of organic waste, in enriching their decay products lower layers, improve many physical and physico-chemical properties of top soil cover, etc Development of land for agricultural use substantially changes the ratio in population and species composition in General, representatives of soil micro- and mesofauna.

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MICROELEMENTS IN WEED PLANTS OF PRIAMURJE

Ivachov P. V.

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Microelements including heavy metals in weeds of Priamurje farm lands were studied. Microelement concentration levels in weeds were estimated and weed plants, which can be used in biochemical moni-toring of farm lands, were selected.

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ZOOBENTHOS OF ZAPOROZHSKOYE RESERVOIR

Fedonenko E., Yakovenko V. 

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Structural and functional characteristics of zoobenthos were researched to estimate food supply of bentovorous fishes and to indicate the ecological status of Zaporozhskoye reservoir sites. In 2015 a seasonal dynamics of zoobenthos has been studied in upper part of the reservoir near Monastyrsky island. In spring 2015 zoobenthos sampling was performed at different sites of Zaporozhskoye reservoir including the sites undergone to sewage impact. It was found that despite pollution species diversity of zoobenthos was high at most sites of the reservoir. Zoobenthos abundance turned out to be maximal in winter and spring in Dreissena aggregations. Indexes and figures of zoobenthos showed the best ecological state of profundal muddy sand at reservoir upper part. The sites of sewage impact as well as profundal of reservoir lower part were estimated as the most contaminated.

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GROWTH OF BACTERIAL CULTURE IN A MEDIUM WITH POTASSIUM PHOS-PHITE AS A SOLE SOURCE OF PHOSPHORUS

Mindubaev A. Z., Voloshina A. D., Minzanova S. T.

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In previous studies, we investigated the structure of white phosphorus metabolites in the culture medium, in which hay bacillus (Bacillus subtilis), selected earlier from sewage sludge, containing 0.1 % of white phosphorus, grew. The signals characteristic for phosphate and phosphite were observed in the 31P NMR spectrum. So, the possibility of observing the bacterial growth in culture medium containing phosphite as the sole phosphorus source caused interest. Such plating of bacterial culture was performed. In media with potassium phosphite as the sole source of phosphorus the growth of colonies was not observed, however, initially smooth agar surface got covered with nicks - depressions were formed as a result of bacterial metabolism. That is, the phosphite is hard of digestion substrate for a given bacterial culture. This result correlates well with the data obtained earlier, that separated from ОСВ bacteria are resistant to white phosphorus , but can not digest it.

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2. Reviews on the reports of the International Science Environmental conference (Krasnodar, 2016)

KRASNODAR: INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC AND ECOLOGICAL CONFERENCE ON MANAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES IN FUTURE

Partoev K.

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At the end of March 2016 at the department of general biology and ecology of the faculty of ecology Kuban State Agrarian University was International scientific ecological conference devoted to combined sowing of field crops in the rotation. For two days, experts from different regions of Russia and neighbor-ing countries of the former Union discussed various issues of combining individual sowing that would contribute to the improvement of the physical, chemical and biological properties of chernozem ordinary and production quality of the plant species.

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