NORTH CAUCASUS ECOLOGICAL HERALD

Registration certificate PI № FS 77-21756 dated 30 august 2005

 2017, Vol. 13,  № 2                                                                Theoretical journal

 Founded in 2005                                                   .           Gets out four times per year

  

C O N T E N T S

 

HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY AND HYDRODYNAMIC DISPERSION OF HY-DROGEL COMPOSITIONS FOR RHIZOSPHERE

Smagin  A. V., Sadovnikova N. B., Smagina M. V., Budnikov V. I., Shnyrev N. A.

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Hydraulic conductivity as a function of thermodynamic potential (pressure) of soil moisture K(P) as well as hydrodynamic dispersion of silver ions are investigated over the samples of sandy soils with admix-tures of strongly swelling polymer hydrogel (SSPH) within the wide concentration range of 0.01 to 0.2%. It is assumed the integrated use of the gel for the purposes of improving the water-holding capacity of soils and their structural status, as well as to place in the rhizosphere of modern crop protection products in the swollen gel compositions. The author’s original centrifugation method was used along with a kinet-ic model of the moisture removal process, which enables to determine the function of moisture conductivity of gel compositions applied in unsteady behavior. The function being studied undergoes substantial variation when affected by SSPH in proportion to the dose of superabsorbent lowering by 2-10 (down to 50) times within the range of low absolute values of moisture pressure | P | = 0.3-20 kPa, and increasing by up to 2-8 times at siccation of gel compositions to the range of | P | = 20-700 kPa. Hydrodynamic dispersion in the gel compositions in comparison with soil substrates is reduced by 2-3 orders, that demonstrate the robust holding of ions in the gel structures designed to protect the rhizosphere from pathogenic organisms.

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INFLUENCE OF COMPLEX COMPOST ON CEREAL PRODUCTIVITY GROWN ON CHERNOZEM ORDINARY

Tregubova V. V., Belyuchenko I. S.

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The results of the study of influence of complex compost on some properties of chernozem ordinary and winter wheat productivity are presented in the article. The complex compost consist of cattle ma-nure, phosphogypsum and crop residues. Turn-in of complex compost into soil contributed to reduc-tion in chernozem ordinary density and increase in yield winter wheat.

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MINERAL WASTES AND THEIR IMPACT ON CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF COMPLEX COMPOSTS AND QUALITY OF CROP YIELD

Belyuchenko I. S.

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The role of soil cover in agrolandscape is determined by a complex of ecology factors that affect on the state of environment. Complex compost includes organic and mineral wastes of various origin and com-position, and has an active effect for 5-6 years (when application to topsoil) on the quality of crop yield.

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CHEMICAL CLEANING OF WATER AND DISPOSAL OF SLUDGES AT COCOCHEMICAL INDUSTRY

Kasimov A. M., Stalinskaya I. V., Chudnenko A. P.

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The results of investigations of the physico-chemical properties of sludges of chemical water treatment are presented, the methods of their utilization in the conditions of PJSC "EVRAZ Bagleikoks" are pro-posed. It is established that these sludges in terms of fractional and chemical composition are similar of mineral materials. Which makes it possible to use them as fillers of asphalt concretes and powders in the manufacture of roofing material and glass-insulated material.

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RESEARCH OF WHITE PHOSPHORUS GENOTOXICITY

Mindubaev A. Z., Babynin E. V., Validov S. Z. 

 

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Our previous studies have demonstrated the absence of white phosphorus toxicity for Aspergillus niger AM1. However, the toxic properties of the substances are of different nature. It is of great interest to study the genotoxicity - a possible source of mutations. In the present study the genotoxicity of white phosphorus is evaluated using the Ames test, which demonstrated the absence of toxicity. White phos-phorus is not a mutagen, as well as its oxidation products (oxygen-containing phosphorus acids). This probably means that in the course of P4 metabolism phosphine is not formed, whose genotoxicity has been already proved. However, the latter statement needs to be tested.

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THE IMPACT OF LIVESTOCK ENTERPRISES ON THE ENVIRONMENT

Larina N. V.

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Livestock wastes utilization problems in Rostov region are considered in article, as well as the deteriora-tion of soil fertility is analyzed. The main way to maintain the productivity of agrocenoses is rational and environmentally safe application of organic and mineral fertilizers. However, their use in excess quanti-ties leads to deterioration of soil properties, creates a danger of pollution of ecosystems, including toxic compounds and pathogenic microorganisms. It is necessary to develop of recycling technologies and methods of storing organic wastes, since waste is formed in huge quantities as a result of the concentra-tion of livestock enterprises. Several ways to remove and utilization of such organic waste, in particular anaerobic digestion are offered.

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COMPLEX COMPOSTS AND PECULIARITIES OF THEIR FORMATION

Belyuchenko I. S.

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The results of long-term studies of physical properties and influence of complex compost on chernozem in the conditions of the Leningrad district of Krasnodar territory are discussed in the article. Complex compost includes manure of cattle, chemical industry wastes (phosphogypsum, tigil and others), as well as the remains of various agricultural crops, and is introduced into topsoil, which increases the proportion of agronomically valuable aggregates and significantly improves its physical properties.

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MICROBIOLOGICAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL BASES OF USE OF ANIMAL WASTES

Teuchezh A. A., Smirnova D. G.

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Environmental aspects of the preparation of organic fertilizers are discussed in the article. The manure used to enrich of soil with nitrogen must come from farms that are free from zooanthroponotic diseases. Disinfection is carried out when there are sources of diseases in manure and litter. The choice of the method of decontamination is carried out at the direction of the veterinary service, taking into account the danger of the epizootic situation, the type of causative agent of the disease, the presence and type of chemical reagents and technical aids. The microbiological basis for the use of livestock wastes is also discussed in the article. Composting is a dynamic microbial process that takes place due to the activity of a community of microorganisms of different groups: bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, yeasts, algae, viruses, protozoa, higher fungi, dwarfish, centipedes, mites, springtails and etc. Biochemical foundations of use of organic waste and technological parameters of process of composting of organic wastes are considered in the article. Organic wastes of animal husbandry and plant cultivation are a mixture of sugars, proteins, fats, hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin and inorganic salts. The composition of plants wastes fractions depends on the age of plant and aits type. Fresh green raw materials contain a lot of water-soluble substances, proteins and salts. The speed of composting depends on many interrelated parameters. The most important factors influencing on composting are: moisture of initial material, aeration, physico-chemical composition, reaction of medium, pile size and etc.

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THE ROLE OF COMPLEX COMPOSTS IN PLACING COMBINED SOWING IN SYSTEM OF AGRARIAN LANDSCAPE

Beliuchenko I. S.

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The functioning of agricultural landscapes is evaluated through their energy costs, which differ from natural systems. In agriculture, energy costs are about 10 times higher due to significant costs when using chemicals. Agricultural landscapes not inferior to the industrial production by the influence on the envi-ronment through energy change soil and atmosphere; because of the chemicals that pollute the water. The costs of energy recovery and protection of nature are constantly increasing, so new developments are needed to improve agricultural technologies in order to reduce the costs of entry and exit of agroecosystems (fields, plantations, pastures). The study of such systems is the first step towards the integration of basic derivatives into a single ecosystem. No direction (agronomy, mechanization and etc.) is able to individually solve the food program and preserve the ecological functions of agricultural landscapes. Ecological directions in agriculture too can not solve this problem quickly and directly, however their system approach can become a basis of the complex decision of many complex problems in agriculture. Examples of such directions can serve as combined crops, using of complex composts, restoration of natural soil microbiocenoses.

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REVIEW OF DIRECTIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL AGRICULTURE (ON THE MATERIALS OF V INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC ENVIRONMENTAL CONFERENCE)

Korunchikova V. V.

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Degradation of soils and agrolandscapes has become a global environmental problem, which calls for the development of ecological trends in agriculture. Ecologization of agriculture includes, first of all, preser-vation and improvement of soil fertility by biological methods, as well as the harmonization of agroeco-systems with a nature on the based of laws its development. The accumulation of waste in various direc-tions of anthropogenic activity is also an equally global problem. And almost all waste, especially animal husbandry and plant growing, are good raw materials for creating soil-like substrates - complex composts. The value of composts increases when mixed with mineral industrial wastes or sewage sludge after cleaning. The ecological functions of agricultural landscapes can be restored by creating and/or sanitizing forest belts, as well as using combined crops, which need more detailed development. All these areas of organic farming are relevant in all regions of the world, which is shown by an overview of the content and subject matter of the Conference presented in this article.

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Н. С. Торосяну – 55 лет!

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