NORTH CAUCASUS ECOLOGICAL HERALD

Registration certificate PI № FS 77-21756 dated 30 august 2005

 2018, Vol. 14,  № 1                                                                Theoretical journal

 Founded in 2005                                                   .           Gets out four times per year

  

C O N T E N T S

ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS THE PROBLEM OF GAS CONTAMINATION OF LIVESTOCK BUILDINGS

Zhdanovich V. P.

сandidate of agricultural sciences, leading researcher, Institute of Radiobiology of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 246007, Republic of Belarus, Gomel, ul. Fedyuninsky, 4,  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Cheshik I. A.

сandidate of medical sciences, Associate Professor, Director of the Institute, Institute of Radiobiology of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 246007, Republic of Belarus, Gomel, ul. Fedyuninsky, 4,  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Nikitin A. N.

сandidate of agricultural sciences, head. laboratory of radioecology, Institute of Radiobiology of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 246007, Republic of Belarus, Gomel, ul. Fedyuninsky, 4,  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Leferd G. A.

Researcher, Institute of Radiobiology of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 246007, Republic of Belarus, Gomel, ul. Fedyuninsky, 4,   This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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  Modern livestock enterprises are a constant source of pollution of gaseous and dust substances as well as microorganisms, whose number, despite the taken measures of protection increases almost proportionally to the increase in output. The gas composition of indoor air is largely determined by health status, density of animals, methods of cleaning and manure removal, ventilation level etc. The intensity of emissions from livestock buildings and adjacent areas directly affected by fluctuations in air temperature, relative humidity and atmospheric pressure. The increase in air temperature and atmospheric pressure, a decrease in relative humidity coupled with a greater degree of contamination of indoor air and the environment. The article summarizes and presents the main results of the research sources and concentration of gases in the premises of cattle-breeding complexes and farms, the possible limitation and prevention of harmful impact on livestock and human means available. Biologically active preparations and technologies of their application selected, tested and introduced in production. The use of the publication in production will provide livestock buildings reducing the contamination with ammonia from 20–25 to 100 %, carbon dioxide from 50 to 100%. Improvement of indoor climate of livestock increase animal productivity by 10–15 %, will significantly improve health and on this basis will lengthen the time of their productive life.

Key words: livestock facilities, biologically active drugs, em 1 "concur", n-1, harmful gases, fumes in the premises, the surrounding area.

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BIODEGRADATION OF TOXIC SUBSTANCES AS SELF-PROTECTION OF NATURE

Mindubaev A. Z.

Senior researcher,candidate of chemistry science, Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry named A.E. Arbuzov of Kazan Scientific Center RAS, Russia, Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan, Arbuzov street, 8, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 One of the most significant probems of modern civilization is waste processing. Among the ways of its solving is biodegradation method, which is the most natural and environmentally friendly way for the destruction of waste of the cities, industry and agriculture. This review is aimed at the elucidation of biodegradation possibilities and the reasons of biodegradation insufficient application at present. The review contains the describtion of specific examples of biodegradation of various classes of substances, many of biodegradation methods have already become customary.

Key words:biodegradation, detoxication, industrial toxic waste.

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SYSTEMATIC APPROACH APPLICATION FOR BIO-INDICATIVE ZONING OF THE AREA ACCORDING TO ITS LEVEL OF ECOLOGICAL RISK

Scherbina V. G.

Candidate of biological sciences, senior researcher, Sochi branch of Natural and Technological Systems Institute, Russia, 354024, Sochi, Kurortny prospect, 99/18, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Gudkova N. K.

Professor RAE, Candidate of Geological and Mineralogical, senior researcher, Sochi branch of Natural and Technological Systems Institute, Russia, 354024, Sochi, Kurortny prospect, 99/18, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. .

Gorbunova T. L.

Researcher, Sochi branch of Natural and Technological Systems Institute, Russia, 354024, Sochi, Kurortny prospect, 99/18, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. .

Belyuchenko I. S.

Doctor of biological sciences, professor, Kuban State Agrarian University named I.T. Trubilin, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinin Street, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Agarkov Yu. V.

Candidate of Geological and Mineralogical, senior researcher, Sochi Scientific Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia,354000, Sochi, Teatralnaya, 8А, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. .

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 Zoning of native part of the foothill area of Sochi’s Niznesholovky agricultural district have been conducted using systematic approach, according to its level of ecological risk, with application of the significant indicative criteria of natural environment digression. Environmental condition has been evaluated by 5- points scale of the ecological risk level for the three groups of criteria: anthropogenic, taxation, and ecological. Group of anthropogenic criteria included evaluation of man-made pressure volume by lichen-indication methods and evaluation of recreational impact level through condition of the birds’ community. Taxation characteristics had been evaluated by the phyto – cenosis range and recreation of the trees stand. Ecological sustainability has been evaluated according to the weed species, adventives and Red Book’s species’ condition criteria. Basing on the gathered results, were determined priority problematic areas within the researched territory for father solution for the rational environmental management tasks, including the measures of mitigation or minimization of the most adverse factors.

Keywords:Sochi’s coastal line, zoning of the territory, ecological risk, native ecosystems.

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THE IMPORTANCE OF ACTINOMYCETES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC MATTER IN AGRARIAN LADSHAPHTS

Beliuchenko I. S.

Doctor of biological sciences, professor, Kuban State Agrarian University, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinina street, 13,  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 Actinomycetes are the most important taxonomic group of microorganisms that participate in the processes of soil formation, and are distinguished by a transitional form between bacteria and fungi. Actinomycetes contain less than bacteria and fungi, but the importance of their soil formation is great. Actinomycetes are aerobes that live mainly in the upper horizon of soils, forming the simplest unicellular mycelium. Part of the mycelium is usually immersed in a decomposing organic matter, and the other is located on its surface. The role of actinomycetes in the soil-forming process is that they decompose the organic matter of the soil, especially such hardly soluble compounds as lignin, cellulose, fiber, wax. Actinomycetes synthesize substances that inhibit the growth and development of pathogenic bacteria and fungi, can coexist with photosynthetic bacteria. Both these groups improve the condition of the soil, increasing antimicrobial activity.

Key words: aerobes, unicellular mycelium, lignin, cellulose, fiber, paraffin, antimicrobial activity, photosynthetic bacteria.

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MECHANIZED COLLECTION OF STONES FROM THE EARTH COUNTRY LAYER

Muratov S. M.

Junior researcher, Scientific research institute of Irrigation and water problem, The TIIAME, h.3, str. Asaka, 100000, Tashkent, UzbekistanThis email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 This article provides the results of applied research "Development of new technologies and means of cleaning the stones, the roots of perennial weeds for the purpose of land reclamation of arid zones" in the period 2015-2017 years. In the results of the studies, the granulometric composition of the soil in clogged earth, the volume and fraction of the stones was determined. A sample of a trailing device for harvesting stones and roots of perennial weeds from arable soil has been developed.

Key words:mechanization, soil clogging stones, cleaning stones, stone-harvesting machines, fractional composition.

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THE VALUE OF PHOSPHORUS AS AN IMPORTANT ELEMENT IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIVING ORGANISMS

Teuchezh A. A.

Senior lecturer, candidate of biological sciences, Kuban State Agrarian University named after   I. T. Trubilin, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinin street, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The questions of importance of such a chemical element as phosphorus in the development of all living organisms is discussed in the article. Phosphorus (P) – chemical element of the group of the periodic system of D.I. Mendeleev, natural phosphorus contains one stable isotope Р31. The most important is the artificially obtained radioactive isotope P32 with a half-life of 14,3 days, used in scientific research. Phosphorus is one of main elements in the nutrition of almost all cultures. The original source of phosphorus is the rocks. The humus horizon contains about 1 kg/ha of soluble or mobile phosphorus with a total mass of about 1 ton/ha. In soil, phosphorus is found in mineral and organic form. Weak mobility of phosphorus keeps its losses during leaching. Phosphorus participates in the construction of nucleic acids, which have an important role, as carriers of heredity and regulators of numerous biochemical processes in living cells of plants, microorganisms and animals. Phosphoric acid is involved in the synthesis of fats and carbohydrates.

Key words: phosphorus, value of phosphorus, living organisms, mobility phosphorus, important element, agricultural plants.

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THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF MANURE

 Teuchezh A. A.

Senior lecturer, candidate of biological sciences, Kuban State Agrarian University named after   I. T. Trubilin, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinin street, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The chemical composition of various types of manure is discussed in this article. Organic fertilizers, unlike mineral fertilizers, which have a positive effect on the plant for 1-2 years, have a positive effect on the crop within 3-4 years after their introduction. They are a source of mineral nutrients - phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium. The chemical composition stable manure of cattle may vary widely, depending on the amount and composition of the feed, the quality and quantity of the litter material. On average, it contains up to 0.2% phosphorus, about 0.5% nitrogen, and up to 0.6% potassium. Phosphorus, contained in manure, is assimilated by plants much easier than nitrogen. The chemical composition of semiliquid manure depends on the species of animals, the type of their feeding, the method of storage and the technology of storage of manure. Chicken droppings contains more nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium than the manure of cattle and pigs. According to the norms of droppings formation, it is established that, with the cellular content from an adult bird population, 55-70 kg accumulate per year, from chicks 30-35 kg. With free maintenance of bird, this rate is reduced several times and is 8-10 kg per head.

Key words: manure, chemical composition, stable manure, semiliquid manure, bird droppings.

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ONTOGENETIC STAGES PICEA OBOVATA LEDEB. IN THE INITIAL PERIOD OF THE SUCCESS OF THE FOREST COMMUNITY

Mishko A.E.

Junior researcher, Federal State Budget Scientific Organization "North Caucasian Regional Research Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture", Russia, 350901, Krasnodar Region, Krasnodar, 40 years of Victory street, 39,  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 Ontogenetic stages of Siberian spruce have been studied in the northern taiga forest of initial period of post-fire succession. Each ontogeny stage is characterized by 14-18 morphometric parameters for which mean values and variation limits are set as well as their duration in the course of individual development.

KeywordsPicea obovata, ontogenetic stage, ontogeny, succession.

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HARVESTMEN (ARACHNIDA, OPILIONES) YEW-BOX TREE GROVES IN THE MODERN CHANGED CONDITIONS

Snegovaya N. Y.

Zoological Institute NAS of Azerbaijan, proezd 1128, kvartal 504, Baku, AZ 1073, Azerbaijan, snegovaya@yahoo.com

Chumachenko Y.A.

Caucasian State Nature Biosphere Reserve, ul. Sovetskaya 187, Maykop, Adygea, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The structure of harvestmen populations in the yew-box tree grove of the Caucasian State Natural Biosphere Reserve was investigated in the area with the box tree before and after the infestation of the box tree moth (Cydalima perspectatis (Walker, 1859).

Key words: Harvestmen, yew and box tree grove, box tree, tree moth, population.

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ECOLOGICAL DANGERS OF RUSSIA – IN THE LAW! 

Morozov G. B.

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 Standards of the Federal law "About Environmental Protection" and the adjacent legislation from positions of efficiency of implementation of the ecological relations in modern Russia are analyzed. On the basis of the analysis of a number of the provisions of the law the system of proofs that by results of action - it one of unsuccessful in the legal system of Russia is given. The legal treatment of a number of his norms causing not efficiency of environmental policy of the state is given: content of nature protection legal relationship; efficiency of action of norms principles on which the Law and its subordinate providing is constructed; realities of execution of peremptory norms of the Law. Conclusion that from positions of the theory and practice of legal regulation of the public relations the Law is constructed not competently that allows subjects of the ecological relations not to bear responsibility for infliction of harm to the environment and the country in general is formulated.

Keywords: quality of standards of the ecological legislation, ecological legal relationship and offenses, ecological damage, harm to the environment.

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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MICROBIOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN SYSTEMS OF AGRARIAN LANDSCAPES

 Beliuchenko I. S.

doctor of biological sciences, professor of Kuban state agrarian university, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinina street, 13,  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The equilibrium of agrarian landscapes is supported by the entropy function on the basis of analysis of biological systems and their components (organisms, species). These components are dissipative, open, self-replicating formations. Strengthening the diversity of the agrarian system directly corresponds with increase in the number of its elements - microorganisms, micromycetes, microarthropods. As the elements decrease, their stability becomes uneven. The agrarian landscape accumulates important parameters within certain limits at an unchanged level with the preservation of mobile equilibrium and the regular renewal of its basic elements.

Key words: equilibrium, entropy function, biological systems, agrarian landscapes, populations, species, soil systems, self-regulating systems.

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SPECIFICITY OF COLLOIDITY OF VARIOUS WASTES

Beliuchenko I. S.

doctor of biological sciences, professor, Kuban State Agrarian University named after I.T. Trubilin, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinina street, 13,  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 Complex composts based on various wastes are formed depending on the colloidal properties of the components and are colloidal systems. Ionic composition, degree of dispersion and other properties of wastes determine the structure, chemical composition and stability of composts, which affects the fertility of the soil and the formation of humus.

Key words: colloids, sol, gel, ionic composition, complex compost, wastes, structure, humus.

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