NORTH CAUCASUS ECOLOGICAL HERALD

Registration certificate PI № FS 77-21756 dated 30 august 2005

 2020, Vol. 16,  № 1                                                          Theoretical journal

          Founded in 2005                                                         Gets out four times per year

  

C O N T E N T S

 

THE PROBLEM OF MISSING CARBON SINK AND POSSIBLE ROLE
OF HETEROPHASE PHYSICAL BARRIERS IN ITS DECISION
(BRIEF ANALYTICAL REVIEW)

Smagin A. V.
doctor of biological science, professor, Lonomosov Moscow State University, (Russia), 119992, Moscow, GSP-2, Leninskye gory; Institute of Forest Science the Russian Academy of Sciences, (Russia), 143030, Moscow region. Sovetskaya 21, p/o Uspenskoe; Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Russia, 117198, Moscow Mi-klukho-Maklaya str., 6. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ;

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 One of the most intriguing problems of the millennium in global ecology is the so-called missing carbon sink in the northern hemisphere of the planet, interconnected with a large imbalance in the as-sessment of the Russian Federation carbon budget in the form of a carbon sink of about 1 Gt per year. The review critically analyzes the information received in recent years in this area, including the methodology of balance sheet estimates and the possible artifacts associated with it. Special atten-tion is paid to the dissimilative component of the carbon balance and, first of all, to the gaseous car-bon flows at the boundary of the soil and atmosphere. For the first time, the hypothesis of time sepa-ration (delay effect) of the assimilation and dissimilation components at high latitudes, associated with the action of physical factors and heterophase physical barriers in soils, has been proposed.
Keywords: carbon cycle, anthropogenic changes, missing sink, gas exchange of soils and atmospheres, inter-facial interactions, soil physical systems and barriers. 

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STABILIZATION OF SOIL–ABSORBING COMPLEX
OF SOD–PODSOLIC SOIL UNDER ACTION OF THE ZEOLITE ROCK

Kozlov A. V.
Cand. of Biol. Sciences, associate professor, Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University, Russia, 603005, Nizhny Novgorod, Ulyanova Str., 1

Kulikova A. H.
Doct. of Agric. Sciences, professor, head of the department, Stolypin Ulyanovsk State Agrarian University, Russia, 432017, Ulyanovsk, Noviy Venets b–d, 1

Rumyantsev R. I.
Undergraduate, Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University, Russia, 603005, Nizhny Novgorod, Ulyanova Str., 1

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 The work presents results of microfield studies of zeolite rock effect on state of the soil-absorbing com-plex of sod-podsolic sandy loamy soil. Stabilization of colloidal system of soil is established due to its significant replenishment with ions of calcium and magnesium, as well as significant reduction of mobili-ty ions of aluminium and hydrogen. The obtained patterns make it possible to consider zeolite as a poly-component material with acid-neutralizing effect, which increases agroecological stability of podsolic soils.
Keywords: zeolite, sod-podsolic soil, soil absorbing complex, change of ratio of the main and acid cations, agroecological stabilization of edafotop. 

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FERTILITY CONDITION OF MEAD-BROWN AND MEAD-FOREST SOILS
OF THE NORTH-WESTERN PART OF THE GREAT CAUCASUS WITHIN
AZERBAIJAN AND THEIR REGULATION

Mammadov G. M.
Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry of the National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, AZ1073, Azerbaijan, Baku, M. Rahim st. 5, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The agrochemical properties and dynamics of the main nutrients of the meadow-brown and meadow-forest soils of the Cuba-Khachmaz zone were studied, ways of increasing their fertility were established taking into account regional characteristics. The studies carried out allowed us to establish a certain com-bination of mineral and organic fertilizers, contributing to an increase in the yield of agricultural crops, improving their quality indicators, as well as maintaining soil fertility.
Key words: soil, dynamics, nutrients, fertility, zone. 

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DYNAMICS OF THE CONTENT NUTRIENT ELEMENTS UNDER
VEGETABLE CULTURES IN CROP ROTATION, AZERBAIJAN

Orujova N. H.
doctor of agrarian sciences, Institute of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan, Baku, Mammad Arif street, 5, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 It was studied in the dynamics of nutrient content of irrigated alluvial-meadow-forest soils in crop rota-tion and continuous cultivation of these crops. Under vegetable cultures, the nutrient content changed in dynamics depending on the biological characteristics of the growing cultures and on the development phase. The content of nutrients in the crop rotation was comparatively higher than with the permanent.
Keywords: irrigated alluvial-meadow-forest soils, crop rotation, permanent cultures, nutrient elements. 

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PERENNIAL GRASSES ARE AN IMPORTANT FACTOR IN REGULATING
SOIL FERTILITY IN THE UPPER VOLGA REGION

Shmeleva N. V.
senior researcher, Ivanovo Research Institute of Agriculture – Branch of the Federal State Budgetary Institution “Verkhnevolzhsky FANTS”, Russia, Ivanovo, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The problem of maintaining soil fertility at a high level has always been very acute, especially at the pre-sent time, when the cost of mineral fertilizers has increased significantly, and due to a reduction in the number of cattle, the application of organic fertilizers is minimized. In this situation, the cultivation of perennial legumes and their mixtures is the most effective and cheap method of increasing soil fertility. As a result of the conducted research, it was found that the largest amount of total and symbiotic nitro-gen is accumulated by grass mixtures with alfalfa on the background of mineral nutrition. Clover's nitro-gen-fixing capacity was significantly lower.
Keywords: alfalfa, grass mixtures, crop-root residues, symbiotic nitrogen. 

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THE INFLUENCE OF MICROALGAE ON SEEDING QUALITY
OF PEAR AND SPRING WHEAT

Kurachenko N. L.
Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, Department of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Russia, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, pr. Mira 90, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Kovalenko O. V.
Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor, Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, Department of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Russia, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, pr. Mira 90, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Kazyulin Lev Fedorovich
Student, Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, Department of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Russia, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, pr. Mira 90, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The aim of the study was to study the effect of organomineral fertilizers based on microalgae Chlorella vulgaris, Arthrospira platensis, Dunaliella sp. on the sowing quality of seeds and the biometric parameters of pea and spring wheat seedlings. It is shown that the effect of organicmineral fertilizer on the sowing quality of seeds and the biometric parameters of seedlings is determined by the characteristics of the crop. The use of organomineral fertilizers for the treatment of pea seeds does not contribute to improving the sowing quality of seeds, but favorably affects the initial growth processes, increasing the length of the sprout by 0,8 cm and the length of the roots by 2.6 cm (p = 0,00–0,02 ). Treatment of wheat seeds with fertilizer with a pure Chlorella vulgaris culture and mixed with Arthrospira platensis and Dunaliella sp. determined an increase in germination energy of 1–2 % and laboratory germination by 2 % (p = 0,00–0,05). The pure microalga Chlorella vulgaris in its pure form had a positive significant effect on the length of wheat seedlings, providing an increase in the parameter by 0,3 cm compared to the control (p = 0,05).
Key words: organo-mineral fertilizer, microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris, Arthrospira platensis, Dunaliella sp., wheat, peas, sowing quality of seeds, biometric indicators. 

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MEADOW CLOVER IN CROP ROTATIONS OF THE UPPER VOLGA REGION

Vikhoreva G. V.
Ivanovo Research Institute of Agriculture – Branch of the Federal State Budgetary Institution “Verkhnevolzhsky FANTS”, Russia, Ivanovo, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Kashirskikh M. V.
Ivanovo Research Institute of Agriculture – Branch of the Federal State Budgetary Institution “Verkhnevolzhsky FANTS”, Russia, Ivanovo, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The features of meadow clover as a precursor of grain crops are studied. It is established that clover al-lows for high yield of grain crops on sod-podzolic soils, and enriches the soil with nutrients, thereby im-proving soil fertility. Meadow clover has a very important agronomic value for agriculture in the upper Volga region. Saturation of crop rotations with it up to 50% improves the fertility and physical and chem-ical properties of sod-podzolic soil in conditions of insufficient chemization, increasing the yield of sub-sequent crops.
Keyword: crop rotation, soil fertility, meadow clover, crops, yield. 

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ORGANIC PRODUCTS FROM AGRICULTURE AND FOREST FUND. WHO RE-SPONSES FOR THE PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION?

Dobrokhotov S. A.
PhD in Agricultural Sciences, St. Petersburg State Agrarian University, Russia, 196601, St. Petersburg-Pushkin, Petersburg Highway 2. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Anisimov A. I.
Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, St. Petersburg State Agrarian University, Rus-sia, 196601, St. Petersburg-Pushkin, St. Petersburg Highway 2. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 In Russia, a program for the export of organic products from agriculture and forestry (wild plants) has been developed. The article shows the directions of export of organic products from agriculture (moral, reindeer, dappled deer antlers, leguminous crops) and forest resources (cedar nut, mushrooms). It is planned to increase the volume of export of organic products in 2020 to 1.5 billion US dollars. Specific indicators of export volumes, ways of achieving them, and the share of individual sectors in exports have been analyzed. It is noted that the implementation of the program does not correspond to the forecasts given by the Russian Union of Organic Agriculture.
Keywords: Organic products, agriculture, forest fund, sectoral niche program, wild plants, export, volume of supplies. 

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RANGE OF RECREATIONAL LOADS IN PLANTS OF FRESH DUBRAVA OF THE SOCHI REGION

Beliuchenko I. S.
Doctor of biological sciences, professor, Kuban State Agrarian University, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinina street, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Scherbina V. G.
Candidate of biological sciences, Sochi branch of Natural and Technological Systems In-stitute, Russia, 354024, Sochi, Kurortny prospect, 99/18, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 In the suburban coastal zone of the Sochi region in the fresh oak forest stands, using the step loading method, the recreational load ranges (man / ha) on sod-carbonate soils were determined by the stages of digression. It was determined that permissible recreational loads during off-road recreation, depending on the dominant species in the stand and the composition of the stand, can vary from 3,57 to 10,52 peo-ple/ha. Plantations with a dominant hornbeam have more recreational stability and communities with a dominant oak are less stable. An increase in the ash-tree component to 30% of the participation leads to a decrease in the recreational capacity in hornbeam-oak stands by 0,89–1,58 people/ha, in oak-hornbeam plants – 0,43–0,69 people/ha.
Key words: Sochi region, fresh oak forest, stand composition, recreational load, imitation, soil density, digression. 

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SITUATIONAL MODELING OF SOIL RECULTIVATION

Bashkin V. N.
professor, doctor of biological sciences, Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Prob-lems of Soil Science of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, 142290, Moscow region, Pushchino, Institutskaya street, 2, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Galiulin R. V.
doctor of geographical sciences, Institute of Basic Biological Problems of Russian Acade-my of Sciences, Russia, 142290, Moscow region, Pushchino, Institutskaya street, 2, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 Results of in vitro and in situ experiments on situational modeling of recultivation of mechanically dis-turbed, pyrogenic and oil and gas condensate contaminated soils from different regions of the country (Yamalo-Nenets autonomous district, Moscow region, Stavropol krai) are presented. Situational model-ing allows quickly a priori obtain information on realization of the soil recultivation in practice at the large scales.
Keywords: situational modeling, in vitro and in situ experiments, recultivation of mechanically disturbed, pyro-genic and contaminated soils. 

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NFLUENCE OF ANTHROPOGENIC FACTORS ON THE BEHAVIOR
OF THE RED FOREST ANT (FORMICA RUFA L.) IN VORONEZH REGION

Drapolyuk I. S.
Voronezh State Pedagogical University, Lenin str., 86, Voronezh, 394043, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Kritsiker A. M.
Voronezh State Pedagogical University, Lenin str., 86, Voronezh, 394043, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The red forest ant (Formica rufa L.) is one of the main components of forest biocenoses in the Central-chernozem region. In recent years, there has been a decrease in the number of this species of insect, and therefore, there is a need to study the influence of anthropogenic factors on the construction activity of the red forest ant as an indicator of the state of forest plantations. The red forest ant is included in the "red list of threatened species" of the international red list of the world Union for conservation of nature in the status of a taxon close to vulnerable species.
Key words: red forest ants, anthill, construction activity, non-industrial waste. 

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GROWTH OF BLACK ASPERGILL ON A ROW OF PHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS

Mindubaev A. Z.
Budgetary-Funded Institution of Science A. E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry of Kazan Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Babynin E. V.
Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University. University St., 18. Kazan, 420008. Republic of Tatarstan. Russia.

Badeeva E. K.
Budgetary-Funded Institution of Science A.E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry of Kazan Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences

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 Biodegradation of white phosphorus is undoubtedly a phenomenon of scientific novelty and practical significance. However, white phosphorus cannot be metabolized to phosphate in one stage; metabolites are formed with intermediate oxidation states of phosphorus. Therefore, it can be assumed that microor-ganisms that neutralize white phosphorus should be capable of biodegradation of a whole spectrum of phosphorus compounds. We tested this hypothesis experimentally. It was uncovered that Aspergillus ni-ger AM1 posseses the ability to use red phosphorus, triamide of phosphoric acid and organophosphorus matter as sources of phosphorus. In addition, in the present work, we describe attempts made to increase the concentration of white phosphorus in the culture medium to values above 1 %. To do this, we added olive oil (a solvent in which white phosphorus is relatively soluble) to the culture medium. It turned out that in the presence of this component, the minimum inhibitory concentration of white phosphorus drops abruptly.
Key words: detoxication, white phosphorus, red phosphorus, phosphorus compounds, minimum inhibitory con-centration, Aspergillus niger. 

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BOTTOM SEDIMENT AS A NATURAL WATER POLLUTION SOURCE

Usmanov I. A.
doctor of Medical Sciences, Head of the Laboratory "Hydroecology and Water Resources Protection"; Scientific Research Institute of Irrigation and Water Problems, Uzbekistan, 100187, Tashkent, Karasu-4 massif, d.11; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Magay M. P.
doctor of Philosophy on medical sciences, Head of the Laboratory “Physical Factors”; Department of Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision of the State Medical University under the Administration of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Uzbekistan, 100047, Tashkent, S. Azimova Street, 65 This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 Article are devoted to studying the bottom sediments influence on the Akhangaran River water quality. It has been established that below the sewage discharge from the Almalyk Mining and Metallurgical Plant (AGMK) in the Akhangaran River coastal sections, bottom sediments are formed in which significant concentrations of mineral and organic substances accumulate. Toxic metals are found in river water, the concentrations of which exceed standard levels, especially in the summer season. A direct strong correla-tion was established between the trace elements content in bottom sediments and their concentration in the Akhangaran River water. The results obtained suggest that bottom sediments are secondary sources of water pollution. In this regard, water quality monitoring in non-ferrous metallurgy enterprises areas should be carried out taking into account the adverse effects of bottom sediments on the water bodies state.
Key words: Akhangaran River, bottom sediments, water quality, wastewater, Almalyk Mining and Metallurgical Plant, observation targets, water use, population. 

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PHARMACEUTICAL POLLUTION OF NATURAL AND WASTE WATERS: TREAT-MENT METHODS AND RESEARCH RESULTS

Kozlova M. A.
PhD of Geography, Senior Researcher, Water Protection Laboratory, Water Problems In-stitute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IWP RAS), Russia, Gubkina St., Moscow, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. .

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 The article considers the problems of pharmaceutical pollution of natural waters. It is shown that up to 90 % of such pollution is caused by the discharge of untreated wastewater. Efficiency of purification from drugs by different methods is analyzed. Data of own researches of the content of some drugs in zones of discharge of treated municipal sewage into water objects - sources of drinking water supply of Moscow are given. Special attention should be paid to water bodies where there are releases of treated wastewater from livestock farms and poultry farms, since the concentration of medicinal contaminants is strongly influenced by the General dilution in the reservoir.
Key words: pharmaceutical pollution, waste water, methods of determination, danger of pollution, methods of water treatment. 

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BIOGEOCHEMISTRY OF FRUITS OF FRUIT PLANTS

Ivashov P. V.
doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Honoured Scientist of the Russian Federation, Senior Researcher, Institute of Water and Ecological Problems FEB RAS; 680000, Russia, Khabarovsk, Kim Yu Chen str., 65, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 Biogeochemical features of fruits of fruit plants such as apples, grapefruits, lemons, grapes (raisins), or-anges and watermelons have been established. The levels of heavy metals in these fruits are revealed. The possibility of using fruits as bioindicators during biogeochemical monitoring of environmental envi-ronments is substantiated. For the first time, a large Association of heavy metals of the order of 20 was established in a number of fruits, but with a relatively low concentration compared to the world's сlarks for plants. Watermelons, apples and oranges are the most informative for biogeochemical monitoring of environmental pollution with heavy metals.
Key words: biogeochemistry, fruits, heavy metals, biomonitoring, environment. 

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PERSPECTIVE METHODS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR RESTORING
DISTURBED FOREST ECOSYSTEMS, IMPROVING QUALITY
AND IMPROVING FOREST PRODUCTIVITY IN THE EUROPEAN NORTH
OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Surina Elena Anatolievna
Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, FBU «Northern Research Institute of Forestry», Arkhangelsk, st. Nikitova, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Senkov Alexandr Olegovich
Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, FBU «Northern Research Institute of Forestry», Arkhangelsk, st. Nikitova, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The report noted the fact of a decrease in stability and increased death of the indigenous forests of the European North of the Russian Federation. In order to preserve and restore the natural type of forest ecosystems, a number of Federal laws have been adopted and references are made to other documents that indicate the directions of restoration methods and substantiate the most effective ways of such measures. The main causes of disturbance of forest stands are indicated: forest fires, unfavorable soil and climatic factors, etc.
Keywords: technology, restoration, disturbed ecosystems. 

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