NORTH CAUCASUS ECOLOGICAL HERALD

Registration certificate PI № FS 77-21756 dated 30 august 2005

 2019, Vol. 15,  № 2                                                          Theoretical journal

          Founded in 2005                                                         Gets out four times per year

  

C O N T E N T S

 

 

 

IX INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC ECOLOGICAL CONFERENCE «WASTES, REASONS OF THEIR EDUCATION AND PROSPECTS OF USING»: REVIEW OF MATERIALS AND SOLUTIONS

Zelenskaya O. V.
candidate of biological sciences, Kuban state agrarian university named after I. T. Trubilin, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinina street, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Korunchikova V. V.
candidate of biological sciences, Kuban state agrarian university named after I. T. Trubilin, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinina street, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 A review of the materials of the IX International Scientific and Ecological Conference “Wastes, causes of their formation and prospects for using” presented in the presentations of participants is given in the article. The conference was held in March 2019 on the basis of the departments of general biology and ecology and the department of agricultural chemistry of Kuban state agrarian university. The conference was organized by the Kuban state agrarian university named after I. T. Trubilina (department of general biology and ecology and department of agrochemistry) and Moscow state university named after M. V. Lomonosov (department of physics and melioration and department of agrochemistry). The most inter-esting and relevant presentations on the conference are noted. The decision of the conference, where rec-ommendations are given on the development of research in the most topical environmental directions of wastes utilization, reclamation of disturbed lands and conservation of soil fertility as a basis for the sus-tainability of agricultural landscapes is given.
Key words: conference, wastes, wastes recycling, recultivation of disturbed lands, soil fertility, stability of agrolandscapes. 

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REPRODUCTION OF SOIL FERTILITY – BIOLOGICAL CROP ROTATION AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS

Seminchenko E. V.
Candidate of Sciences, Candidate Nizhne-Volzhsky Agricultural Research Institute – a branch of the Federal Science Center for Agroecology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Volgograd region, Gorodishchensky district, p. Regional Agricultural Station, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 An important factor in increasing agricultural production in the dry-steppe zone of light chestnut soils is the use of organic fertilizers, which significantly affect the increase in effective and potential soil fertility, increases the yield of cultivated crops, improve the quality of the products, provide an economical con-sumption of moisture for the crop.
Keywords: green mans, black steam, biologized techniques, grain crops, yield, yield. 

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CHARACTERISTICS OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES THE LIGHT-GRAY FOREST SOIL IN THE UTILIZATION OF PIG MANURE

Titova V. I.
dr. s.-h. sciences, professor, Nizhny Novgorod State Agricultural Academy, Russia, 603107, Nizhny Novgorod, 97 Gagarin ave.

Varlamova L. D.
dr. s.-h. sciences, Professor, FSBEI HE Nizhegorodskaya State Agricultural Academy, 97 Gagarin ave., Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, 603107

Rybin R. N.
FSBEI HE Nizhegorodskaya State Agricultural Academy, 97, Gagarin ave, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, 603107

Malysheva M. K.
FSBEI HE Nizhegorodskaya State Agricultural Academy, 97, Gagarin ave, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, 603107

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 Safe disposal in the agricultural production of organic waste of industrial pig-breeding enterprises is one of the urgent tasks that have a clearly expressed practical significance of modern agricultural science. However, there is very little information reflecting the level of exposure of large volumes of swine manure to the agro-ecological state of the soil, which was the basis for this work. The article presents the data of evaluation of physico-chemical properties of light gray forest soils, mainly light granulometric composition, soils of the pig complex "Vadsky" after two-three years of utilization of solid and liquid fractions of pig manure formed at the enterprise. The field survey was performed in September 2018, comparing the results obtained with the 2012 data. Es-timated figures: exchange and hydrolytic acidi-ty, the sum of absorbed bases, absorption capacity and degree of soil saturation with bases. Total sur-veyed 550 hectares, 41 soil samples analyzed, the analysis results were processed by the variation statistics method. The annual dose of applying solid pig manure was 30 t/ha, liquid – 60 (for spring grain) and 90 t/ha (for winter grain and maize). It has been established that, on average, in the farm, the introduction of pig manure in the indicated doses helps to reduce the exchange acidity (the pHKCl from 5.20 to 5.5) and improvement of indicators characterizing the soil absorbing complex. This reduces the hydrolytic acidity (from 2.66 to 2.29 mmol/100g of soil) and the amount of exchange bases increases (by 0.53 mmol/100g of soil relative to 10.70 mmol /100g of soil in 2012), with some increase in the de-gree of soil saturation with bases (from 81% to 83%).
Keywords: solid and liquid fractions of pig manure, application dose, light-gray forest soil, physico-chemical indicators of the soil. 

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THE INFLUENCE OF HUMIC SUBSTANCES ON THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF THE SOIL WHEN GROWING CERTAIN CROPS

Naumova G. V.
doctor of technical Sciences, Professor, chief researcher, Institute of nature management of NAS of Belarus, laboratory of EcoTechnologies, Belarus, 222114, Minsk, F. Skorina str., 10, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Makarova N. L.
candidate of technical Sciences, senior researcher, Institute of nature management of NAS of Belarus, laboratory of EcoTechnologies, Belarus, 222114, Minsk, F. Skorina str., 10, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Zhmakova N. A.
candidate of technical Sciences, leading researcher, Institute of nature management of NAS of Belarus, laboratory of EcoTechnologies, Belarus, 222114, Minsk, F. Skorina str., 10, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Ovchinnikova T. F.
candidate of technical Sciences, senior researcher. Institute of nature management of NAS of Belarus, laboratory of EcoTechnologies, Belarus, 222114, Minsk, F. Skorina str., 10, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The aim of the research was to study the influence of soil treatments by biologically active humic plant growth regulators on the intensity of biochemical processes in it, namely, on the level of activity of the most common soil enzymes. The object of research was the soil treated with humic prepara-tions "Hydrohumate" and "Oxyhumate" and selected in the process of growing radishes in cassettes, potatoes – in the dividing experiments, as well as the soil on which a long time (5 and 10 years) was grown perennial flower culture Strelittia Korolevskaya. Enzyme activity in soils was determined by conventional enzymological methods. It was found that the use of humic growth regulators derived from peat, Hydrohumate and Oxyhumate, promotes activation of biochemical processes in the soil, as evidenced by the increase in the level of activity of enzymes such as catalase, invertase, amylase, urease. Humic preparations, being growth stimulants, have a positive effect not only directly on the growth processes of plants, but also indirectly contribute to the biological activity of soil substrates, that is, humic preparations can be used to increase the biological activity and fertility of ecologically disturbed soils.
Key words: soil enzymes, catalase, invertase, amylase, urease, growth regulators, peat. 

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EFFECT OF SHUNGITE ON PLANT GROWTH AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOIL IN THE CULTIVATION OF POTATOES

Sidorova V. A.
candidate of agricultural sciences, researcher, Institute of Biology of the Karelian Re-search Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, 185910, Petrozavodsk, ul. Pushkinskaya, 11, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Yurkevich M. G.
candidate of agricultural sciences, senior researcher, Institute of Biology of the Karelian Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, 185910, Petrozavodsk, ul. Pushkinskaya, 11, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Dubrovina I. A.
candidate of agricultural sciences, senior researcher, Institute of Biology of the Karelian Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, 185910, Petrozavodsk, ul. Pushkinskaya, 11, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The influence of different doses and fractions of shungite on the growth and yield of potatoes, as well as on the physico-chemical properties of medium-sized agrodernic-podzolic soil. It is shown that the investi-gated shungite does not have a negative impact on plants and promotes earlier emergence. The introduc-tion of shungite into the soil leads to an increase in the carbon content, but does not cause significant changes in the reaction of the medium and the content of total nitrogen.
Key words: shungite, field experiment, biomass, soil, carbon. 

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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE CONTENT OF HEAVY METALS IN SOILS OF AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE

Teuchezh A. A.
associate professor, candidate of biological sciences, Kuban state agrarian university named after I.T. Trubilin, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinina street, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The results of the evaluation of the content of heavy metals in the soils of agrolandscape are considered in the article. Data of the gross content and concentration of mobile forms of heavy metals in the com-ponents of the agrolandscape are analyzed by their average values. The averages are almost identical for both forms of metals in crop rotation. If the content of some heavy metals differs in crop rotation from the average in agrolandscape, then it is insignificant. This is explained by the fact that the share of crop rotation in the total area of the agricultural landscape is about 95% and the influence of other compo-nents on average values is insignificant. The share of some metals in the gross and mobile forms in the soils of forest belts is slightly higher than the average for the agrolandscape. This is due to their higher content in the exchange funds of the underlying rocks. Concentrations of most heavy metals in soils of natural lands, which are mainly under conditions of accumulation of substances (floodplain and valley of the river, bottoms of beams), due to an increase in the rates of application of mineral fertilizers on ag-ricultural fields increased markedly in 2015 compared to 2010 and especially from 2006 This bond is clearly visible for cadmium, zinc, copper, cobalt and nickel. The following conclusions can be drawn based on the assessment of the gross content of heavy metals and the concentration of their mobile forms in the soils of the agrolandscape and its components according to the results of areal surveys in 2006, 2010 and 2015 years: total area of the monitoring site is 450 hectares, or about 6–7% of the total agricultural land area; comparison of data on the gross quantity and content of mobile forms of individ-ual metals by monitoring sites was carried out on 92 (copper, nickel, cadmium) and 98%. Comparative analysis of data on the content of heavy metals in gross and mobile equivalent for soils of the entire agrolandscape and monitoring site showed a high correlation (by 90–95%) of the results, which is con-firmed by the correctness of the choice of the monitoring spot. Field survey of heavy metals in 2006, 2010 and 2015 years showed on a number of elements a noticeable increase in their content, especially during the last five-year period, within 8–10%; the concentration of other elements increased even more noticeably - up to 70%. The results of areal surveys of the content of heavy metals in the soils of the agrolandscape provide grounds for developing a program to control the dynamics of heavy metals to re-duce their impact on the productivity and quality of crops.
Keywords: heavy metals, gross forms, mobile forms, concentrations, maximum permissible concentrations. 

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GENOTOXICITY OF WHITE PHOSPHORUS FOR EUCARIOTS, DETERMINED BY THE METHOD

Mindubaev A. Z.
candidate of сhemical sciences, senior researcher, associate professor of the Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry named after A. E. Arbuzov, Kazan Scientific Center RAS, Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Babynin E. V.
candidate of biological sciences, associate professor, department of genetics, KFU, Insti-tute of fundamental medicine and biology, 420000, Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan, Universitetskaya street, 18, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Badeeva E. K.
candidate of chemical sciences, researcher, Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry named after A. E. Arbuzov, Kazan Scientific Center RAS, Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 Our previous studies demonstrated for the first time the presence of genotoxic properties in white phos-phorus. This in no doubt makes white phosphorus even more dangerous to handle. However, our initial studies were carried out on prokaryotes (Salmonella typhimurium). Since the genetic apparatus of pro-karyotes is differently arranged than in eukaryotes (including humans), the results of the studies on Sal-monella is not completely transferable to humans. In addition to the gene mutations studied by the Ames test and the SOS-lux test, which have a common nature in all living organisms, there are genomic rear-rangements that should be studied in eukaryotes. For this purpose, an Allium-test is used on onion root-lets (Allium cepa L.). In this work, we present the first report on the negative effect of white phosphorus on the cell cycle of eukaryotes by the Allium-test method. It turned out that white phosphorus, even at very low concentrations of 0.01 %, exponentially increases the number of chromosomal aberrations.
Key words: white phosphorus, genotoxicity, eukaryotes, chromosomal aberrations, cell cycle, Allium-test. 

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LEAF LIFE-SPAN DYNAMICS OF PLANTS IN GERANIUM-HEDYSARUM MEADOWS OF THE NORTH-WESTERN CAUCASUS

Erkenova M. A.
Ph. D. (Biology), head of Department of natural Sciences Karachai –Cherkessian State University by U.D. Aliev, Karachaevsc, Russia; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The aim for the first time leaf life-span of 18 species of alpine plants is studied in Geranium-Hedysarum meadows of the North-Western Caucasus. Validity and confidence of scientific principles bases on a large field material, obtained through modern methods, adequate to study purposes, and analyzed on the modern level with statistical methods. The shortest mean leaf life-span among summer-green species was observed in Phleum alpinum (31,6 days in average). In Pulsatilla aurea this parameter is the highest (57,7 days). Among summer-winter-green plants the mean life-span for leaves of summer generation does not vary strongly (in average, from 34 to 43 days). Luzula multiflora has the lowest value in this group.In Carex atrata and Festuca brunnescens leaves of winter generation persisted in average 10 months, in Deschampsia flexuosa – 10,7 months, in Luzula multiflora – 10,8 months. Maximal leaf life-span of these species was 12 months.
Keywords: Geranium-Hedysarum meadows, leaf life-span, leaves of winter and summer generation, alpine plants. 

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THE CURRENT STATE OF BEECH FORESTS IN THE CENTRAL CAUCASUS ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE RESERVE "KARASU" (KABARDINO-BALKAR REPUBLIC)

Tsepkova N. L.
Ph.D., (Biology), Tembotov Institute of Ecology of Mountain Territories of Russian Sci-ence Academy, 360051, Kabardino-Balkaria Republic, Nalchik, I. Armand Street, 37a, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Chadaeva V. A.
Doctor of Biological Sciences, Tembotov Institute of Ecology of Mountain Territories of Russian Science Academy, 360051, Kabardino-Balkaria Republic, Nalchik, I. Armand Street, 37a, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 As a result of the authorized and unauthorized forest cutting, the area of the beech forests of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic (Central Caucasus) is currently reduced. Fagus orientalis Lipsky is replaced by Carpinus betulus L. at the clearings. Four of ten studied beech communities in the Kara-Su reserve are at different stages of digression. In disturbed phytocenoses there are traces of felling and mechanical dam-age of trunks (5–15 % of trees), a lot of paths (10–20 % of the area), undeveloped forest litter (thickness 0–2 cm), reduced number of tiers and low crowns density (0.4–0.7). Meadow and ruderal plant species are distributed in the grass layer. The renewal of the beech forest is virtually absent. 0–50 trees of under-growth are grown on one hectare.
Key words: beech forests, Fagus orientalis, Kara-Su reserve, deforestation, digression stage, meadow and rude-ral plant species. 

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RECREATIONAL STABILITY OF OAK PLANTATIONS WITH DIFFERENT COMPOSITION OF THE WOOD

Beliuchenko I. S.
Doctor of biological sciences, professor, Kuban State Agrarian University, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinina street, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Scherbina V. G.
Candidate of biological sciences, Sochi branch of Natural and Technological Systems In-stitute, Russia, 354024, Sochi, Kurortny prospect, 99/18, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The recreational sustainability of fresh oak stands in the Sochi region is analyzed. The studies are based on the assessment of the dynamics of the share of weakened trees with different composition of the stand and recreational load. According to the proximity of the reactions to the influencing factors, three groups of forest plantations with different composition of the stand, which have equal bioecological re-sistance, are identified.
Key words: Sochi coast, soil, recreational digression, fresh oak, weakened trees, composition of the stand, sus-tainability. 

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GROWTH FORMS OF APOPHYTES AND OLD NATURALIZED NEOPHYTES OF THE MEZEN’-VYCHEGDA PLAIN

Bulysheva I. S.
Bachelor of Ecology, the Master’s Student of the Ecology Department of the Institute of Natural Sciences in Pitirim Sorokin Syktyvkar State University, Engineer Researcher in Laboratory of Geroprotective and Radioprotective Technologies of Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, Komi Republic, 167001, Syktyvkar, Oktyabr’skiy pr-t, 55, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Bobroff Yu. A.
Candidate of Biological Sciences, the Associate Professor of the Ecology Department of the Institute of Natural Sciences in Pitirim Sorokin Syktyvkar State University, Russia, Komi Republic, 167001, Syktyvkar, Oktyabr’skiy pr-t, 55, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Chudinova I. A.
Master of Ecology, the Post-graduate Student of the Ecology Department of the Institute of Natural Sciences in Pitirim Sorokin Syktyvkar State University, Junior Research Fellow in Laboratory of Geroprotective and Radioprotective Technologies of Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, Komi Republic, 167001, Syktyvkar, Oktyabr’skiy pr-t, 55, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Pozdeeva L. M.
Institute of Natural Sciences in Pitirim Sorokin Syktyvkar State University, Russia, Komi Republic, 167001, Syktyvkar, Oktyabr’skiy pr-t, 55, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 One of the indicators of originality of synanthropic floristic complexes is a spectrum of their growth forms, described in the work for a holistic physical-geographical region – Mezen’–Vychegda Plain. Here, according to the methodology in accordance with the Serebryakov system, authors described 32 biomorphs in 235 plants. Perennial, polycarpic, herbaceous plants dominate in the whole spectrum. Among the private growth forms, spring and biennial monocarpics, rod-root and stolon polycarpics biomorhs lead. Such ratios are well explained by the specificity of the soils of urbanized ecotops. At the same time, the spectrum of the biomorphs of the considered group is quite similar to the general biomorphological spectrum of seed plants in the northeast of the European part of Russia.
Key words: apophytes, alien plants, naturalized plants, growth forms, spectrums of growth forms. 

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DYNAMICS OF THE PHYTOPLANKTON OF GORKOVSKY WATER RESERVOIR DURING TIME

Geiger E. Yu.
candidate of agricultural sciences, Associate Professor of the Department "Agrochemistry and Agroecology", FGBOU VO "Nizhny Novgorod State Agricultural Academy", Russia, 603107, Nizhny Novgorod, Gagarin Ave., 97, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Titova V. I.
doctor of agricultural sciences, Professor, head. of the Department "Agrochemistry and Agroecology", FGBOU VO "Nizhny Novgorod State Agricultural Academy", Russia, 603107, Nizhny Novgorod, Gagarin Avenue, 97, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 he statistical data (mean, median, coefficient of variation) on the seasonal change in the biomass of different groups of phytoplankton (diatomaceous, blue-green, green, golden, pyrophytic and euglenic al-gae) in the Gorky reservoir for the period 2009–2013 are presented, and indices species diversity of Simpson and Shannon. The analysis showed that the arithmetic mean of the indicator in question significantly exceeds the corresponding median value, which depreciates the conclusions and calculated indicators made on its basis.
Key words: reservoir, eutrophication, phytoplankton, biomass, Shannon index, Simpson index. 

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APPROACHES TO THE GEOINFORMATION ASSESSMENT OF A HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL OBJECT' GEOECOLOGICAL RISKS

Molochko A. V.
candidate of geographical sciences, head of department of economic and social geogra-phy, Saratov State University named after N.G. Chernishevsky, Russia, 410012, Astra-khanskaya street, 83, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 The article proposes an approach to geo information assessment of geoecological risk analysis of the operation of a hazardous industrial object (with the oilfield as an example) at all stages of its operation. As a tool of processing and visualization of a wide rage of geoecological and other data types is suggested to use GIS and mathematic and cartography modeling.
Key words: geoecological risk, risk analysis, hazard industrial object, GIS, mathematic and cartography model-ing. 

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CONDITION OF EDAPHOTOPES OF POST-NECHNOGENIC DONBASS ECOSYSTEMS: A COMPLEX APPROACH

Syshchykov D. V.
candidate of biological sciences, Public institution "Donetsk botanical garden", DPR, 283059, Donetsk, Ilyicha ave., 110; e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Agurova I. V.
candidate of biological sciences, Public institution "Donetsk botanical garden", DPR, 283059, Donetsk, Ilyicha ave., 110; e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 As a result of the studies on the content of mineral nutrition elements (phosphorus, nitrogen) and organic matter in edaphotopes of post-technogenic ecosystems, seasonal changes in the content of these sub-stances were shown at five monitoring sites. The lowest content of both organic matter, ammonium ni-trogen and phosphorus is noted for the sludge storage substrate. The soils of the decommissioned quarry for the extraction of building stone were characterized by the highest content of humus; for the rest of the monitoring sites, extremely low content of organic matter was recorded. When studying the content of ammonium nitrogen in the soils of all monitoring sites, it was established that its content decreases by autumn, since this element is consumed during the growing season as the most accessible form of nitro-gen for plants. In the study of phosphorus, its significant content in the soil horizons of the area of a de-commissioned open pit for the extraction of building stone is due to the increased phosphorus content in the rock.
Keywords: edaphotope, sludge storage, rock, phosphorus, ammonium nitrogen, humus, Donbass, monitoring site. 

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ZOOPLANKTON OF THE TAKHTAKORPU WATER RESERVOİR

Aliev A. R.
doctor of philosophy in biology, associate professor, head of the laboratory of Hydrobiology, Institute of Zoology, National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan, Baku, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Taptigova K. A.
doctor of philosophy in biology, researcher of Applied Zoology center Institute of Zoology, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Azerbaijan, Baku, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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 In paper describe a report about zooplankton which formed in the Takhtakorpu water reservoir. As a result of hydrobiological research which carried out during 2017–2018 years were found 14 zooplankton species in the water reservoir. 5 of them belong to rotators (T.similis, L.luna, C.adriatica, B.quadridentatus, K.cochlearis), one of them belongs to cldocera (B.longirostris), 8 of them belong to copepoda (S.sarsi, M.asiaticus, M.albidus, E.serrulatus, P.pimbriatus, A.viridis, A.gigas, A.bicuspidatus) Our research is the first hydrological research since water reservoir was built and filled (2013).
Key words: Takhtakorpu water reservoir, zooplankton, hydrobiological researches, species, rotator, cladocera, copepoda. 

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