NORTH CAUCASUS ECOLOGICAL HERALD

Registration certificate PI № FS 77-21756 dated 30 august 2005

 2017, Vol. 13,  № 4                                                                Theoretical journal

 Founded in 2005                                                   .           Gets out four times per year

  

C O N T E N T S

ON THE PHYSICAL MECHANISMS OF WATER RETENTION AND DYNAMICS OF DISPERSION IN SOILS AND COLLOID-DISPERSED  MATERIALS

 Smagin A. V.

doctor of biological science, professor, Lonomosov Moscow State University, Russia, 119992, Moscow, GSP-2, Leninskye gory; Institute of Forest Science the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, 143030, Moscow region. Sovetskaya 21, p/o Uspenskoe; Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Russia,  117198, Moscow Miklukho-Maklaya str., 6. E-mail:  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ;

Sadovnikova N. B.

PHD, researcher, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia, 119992, Moscow, GSP-2, Leninskye gory; Institute of Forest Science the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, 143030, Moscow region. Sovetskaya 21, p/o Uspenskoe,

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The paper examines quantitatively the discussion questions about physical mechanisms of interfacial interactions in colloidal-disperse systems, represented by the soil samples, grounds, natural and synthetic colloidal-particulate materials. Pre-existing antagonistic views about the leading role of hydration of fine particles surface or hydration of ions (osmotic absorption) aligned to each other using the concept of dynamic phases’ interface in a disperse system, where the ions of the electric double layer are a continuation (ramification) of the surface in a liquid medium. The thermodynamic concept of competitive interfacial interactions in a coherently-dispersed systems, supplemented by facts indicating the dominance of ion-electrostatic mechanism of forming water-holding capacity and aggregate stability of fine particles of the solid phase. The fundamental model of ion-electrostatic component of disjoining pressure (Derjaguin's equation) modified for coherently-dispersed systems by the input of the adsorption layer parameter of strongly bound water and by the expression of soil-water matrix potential via moisture content, and dispersity (effective specific surface). For the first time the dispersion is considered as a dynamic phenomenon defined by the aggregative stability of colloid-dispersed complex of the solid phase and being under the control of the mobile thermodynamic factors of temperature, charge and concentration of ions of the electric double layer. New concept formed the basis of the alternative to the BET theory approach to determining the effective specific surface area by the slope of the water-retention curves of soil and soil-like  colloidal disperse materials, as well as evaluation of energy parameters of the interfacial interactions in the form of surface tension at the boundary between solid and liquid phases and the generalized Hamaker constants.

Keywords: colloid-dispersed systems, gels, thermodynamics, dispersion, specific surface area, water-retention curves, electric double layer, interfacial interaction.

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DEVELOPMENT EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES OF WASTES UTILIZATION OF ENTERPRISES OF SERIES OF SECTORS OF HEAVY INDUSTRY

Stalinsky D. V.

Doctor of technical sciences, professor, State Enterprise "UkrNTTS" Energostal", Ukraine, 61166, Kharkov, Nauki ave., 9.

Kasimov A. M.

Doctor of technical sciences, professor, deputy director for STR of the structural unit, State Enterprise "UkrNTTS" Energostal", Ukraine, 61166, Kharkov, Nauki ave., 9.

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A brief analysis of new ecologically oriented and economically efficient technologies which developed SE UkrNTC "Energostal" and tested in industrial conditions   is given. Technologies for utilization of valuable components from large-tonnage waste from ferrous metallurgy, industrial energy, chemical and petrochemical industries are developed.

Key words: ferrous metallurgy, industrial energy, chemical industry, waste utilization, environmental protection, zinc concentrate, vanadium oxide, phosphogypsum, oil sludge, building materials.

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OPTIMIZATION OF SURFACE WASTE WATER DRAINING FROM AUTOMOBILE ROAD BRIDGES TO NATURAL WATER OBJECTS

WITH REGARD TO THE REGULATIONS OF THE FORMATION OF THEIR QUALITY

 Novikova O. K.

Ph. D. of technical, Associate Professor, Energy Efficiency in the Technosphere" Establishment "Belarusian State University of Transport", Republic of Belarus, Gomel, Kirova St. 34,  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. .

Gruzinova V. L.

Ph. D. of technical, Associate Professor, Energy Efficiency in the Technosphere" Establishment "Belarusian State University of Transport", Republic of Belarus, Gomel, Kirova St. 34,  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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OPTIMIZATION OF SURFACE WASTE WATER DRAINING

FROM AUTOMOBILE ROAD BRIDGES TO NATURAL WATER OBJECTS

WITH REGARD TO THE REGULATIONS OF THE FORMATION

OF THEIR QUALITY

 

Novikova O. K.

Ph. D. of technical, Associate Professor, Energy Efficiency in the Technosphere" Establishment "Belarusian State University of Transport", Republic of Belarus, Gomel, Kirova St. 34,  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. .

Gruzinova V. L.

Ph. D. of technical, Associate Professor, Energy Efficiency in the Technosphere" Establishment "Belarusian State University of Transport", Republic of Belarus, Gomel, Kirova St. 34,  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.  

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ORGANIC MATTER AND THEIR USE AS FERTILIZER

 Teuchezh A. A.

Senior lecturer, candidate of biological sciences, Kuban State Agrarian University named after   I. T. Trubilin, Russia, 350044, Krasnodar, Kalinin street, 13, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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The article discusses the various organic fertilizers. Such organic matter as manure, slurry, poultry manure, humus, peat, compost, etc. Regular application of organic fertilizers increases the content of soil humus, thus increasing soil fertility. Organic fertilizers contain nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other macro - and micronutrients required for plant nutrition. The composition of the manure depends on the animal's species, feed, bedding, method of storage and degree of decomposition. Manure consists of a mixture of plant litter with solid and liquid excreta of animals. The decomposition of manure are distinguished in the fresh, polupereprevshie, decomposed and humus. Slurry is a very valuable nitrogen-potash fertilizer. Doses of manure application depend on soil and climatic conditions, biological characteristics of the culture and quality of fertilizers.

Key words: organic fertilizer, compost, manure, slurry, poultry manure, compost, farm animals, and minerals.

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ESTIMATION OF MUTAGENIC AND ANTIMUTAGENIC PROPORTIES OF WHITE PHOSPHORUS USING SOS-LUX TEST

Mindubaev A. Z.

senior researcher,candidate of chemistry science, Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry named A.E. Arbuzov of Kazan Scientific Center RAS, Russia, Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan, Arbuzov street, 8, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Babynin E. V.

candidate of biological sciences, associate professor of department of genetics of KFU, Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Russia, 420000, Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan, University street, 18,  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Voloshina A. D.

candidate of biological sciences, research assistant, Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry named A.E. Arbuzov of Kazan Scientific Center RAS, Russia, Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan, Arbuzov street, 8, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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Our previous studies have demonstrated the absence of white phosphorus toxicity for Aspergillus niger AM1. However, the toxic properties of the substances are of different nature. It is of great interest to study the genotoxicity - a possible source of mutations. In the present study the genotoxicity of white phosphorus is evaluated using the Ames test, which demonstrated the absence of toxicity. White phosphorus is not a mutagen, as well as its oxidation products (oxygen-containing phosphorus acids). This probably means that in the course of  P4 metabolism phosphine is not formed, whose genotoxicity has been already proved. However, the latter statement needs to be tested.

Key words: white phosphorus, Aspergillus niger АМ1, culture medium, genotoxicity, Ames test,  Salmonella typhimurium.

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INFLUENCE OF ENDOGENIC AND EXOGENOUS FACTORS ON VARIABILITY AND CORRELATION RELATIONS OF MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF SEEDS OF DILL (ANETHUM GRAVEOLENS L.)

 Bukharov AF.

doctor of agricultural sciences, chief researcher of the group of seed and vegetable seed State scientific institution "All-Russian scientifically – an exploratory institute vegetable", Russia, 140153, Moscow obl., Ramenskiy region, Verey, 500,  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. .

Baleev D. N.

candidate of agricultural sciences, senior researcher, of the group of seed and vegetable seed State scientific institution "All-Russian scientifically –- an exploratory institute vegetable", Russia, 140153, Moscow obl., Ramenskiy region, Verey, 500,  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. .

Ivanova M. I.

doctor of agricultural sciences, chief researcher of the group of green cultures State scientific institution "All-Russian scientifically – an exploratory institute vegetable", Russia, 140153, Moscow obl., Ramenskiy region, Verey, 500.

Buharova A. R.

professor, deputy dean of agronomical faculty of RGAZU, Russia, 143900, Moscow Region, Balashikha, Yu. Fuchik St., 1.  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. .

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An investigation was made on the effect of the location of the centrifuge dander of the Centaur variety (Anethum graveolens L.) on the linear parameters of the seed. The seeds were sown on the experimental field of the FGBNU VNIIO in 2015–2016 years and grown to produce seeds. 30 plants were selected in threefold repetition for each variant at random, and umbrellas were cut in accordance with the experimental design. Then, the length and width of the seed, embryo and endosperm from umbrellas , located on shoots of first, second order of branching and control were measured. It was found, that the mean lengths of the elements of the seed (3.85–3.43 mm), endosperm (3.37–2.99 mm) and embryo (1.00–0.77 mm) of dill varied considerably and depended on architectonics of a seed plant and environmental conditions. The length of the endosperm averaged 88-89 % of the length of the seed. The length of the embryo in the inflorescences of the first order was 26 % of the length of the seed and 30 % of the length of the endosperm, and in umbrellas of the second order – 5 and 6 % lower. The length of the seed and endosperm was mainly influenced by growing conditions (77 % and 81 %, respectively), and the length of the embryo – the maternal factor (92 %). Correlation analysis showed that the influence of the length of the seed on the length of the endosperm had a high positive dependence (r = 0.961–0.978). Between the length of the embryo and the length of the seed; Also the length of the embryo and the length of the endosperm, a weak linkage was noted (r = 0.050–0.314 and 0.066–0.325 respectively).

Key words: dill, Anethum graveolens L., seed plant architectonics, seed structure, seed, endosperm, embryo.

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ANNUAL GRASSES YIELD WHEN IMPROVING MINERAL NUTRITION AND UNDERGROUND MOISTENING BY SLUICING

 Zakharova О.А.

Doctor of Agricultural Science, Associate Professor of the Faculty of Agronomy and Agrotechnologies, FSBE HE “Ryazan State Agrotechnological University Named after P.A. Kstychev”, Kostychev St., 1, Ryazan, 390044, Russia

Evsenkin К.N.

Candidate of Technical Science, chief researcher, FSBSI All-Russian RI for Hydrotechnics and Amelioration Named after А.N. Кostyakov, Bolshaya Academicheskaya St., 44, Facility 2, Moscow, Russia

Musaev F.А.

Doctor of Agricultural Science, Full Professor of the Faculty of Agricultural Production and Processing, FSBE HE “Ryazan State Agrotechnological University Named after P.A. Kstychev”, Kostychev St., 1, Ryazan, 390044, Russia

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Dehydrating waterlogged soils contributes to the improvement of other factors of plant life. The drainage regime should be so that all factors of plant life change for their optimal values. The use of various fertilizers on ameliorative lands has an ambiguous effect on the fertility and yield of agricultural crops. The aim of our research is studying the yield of annual grasses when improving the mineral nutrition and underground moistening by sluicing. Field experimental studies were carried out at the experimental drained facility "Tinky-2" located on the territory of EPF "Polkovo" in Ryazan oblast in 2014–2016. The scheme of field experiment included the following variants: 1. Control without fertilizers. 2. N30P45K60 background (annual application). 3. Background + fertilizing ameliorant 40t/ha. 4. Background + fertilizing ameliorant 60t/ha. 5. Background + fertilizing ameliorant 80t/ha in triplicate. The research methodology is generally accepted. In the field experiment, the effect of the fertilizing ameliorant on the basis of wastes in the production of seeds (chaff), manure and peat with the addition of mineral fertilizers on the yield of the vetch-oat mixture herbage on the background of sluicing was studied. The variant of the background + fertilizing ameliorant of 80 t/ha in a case of the underground moistening by sluicing was determined optimum.

Key words: ameliorant, yield, vetch and oats mixture, sluicing.

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ABOUT TRANSFER TO THE STATUS OF THE BOTANICAL NATURE RESERVATION OF THE INTRAZONAL WOOD IN THE ZONE ARID

STEPPES  OF STAVROPOL TERRITORY 

 Dzibov J. S.

doctor of Biological Sciences, consultant, Stavropol Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture, Russia, 356241, Mikhailovsk, Nikonova street, 49, Stavropol Territory,  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Lapenko N. G.

candidate of Biological Sciences, leading researcher, Stavropol Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture, Russia, 356241, Mikhailovsk, Nikonova street, 49, Stavropol Territory,  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Darmilov R. A.

stavropol Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture, Russia 356241, Mikhailovsk, Nikonova street, 49, Stavropol Territory,  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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In a zone of the dry steppe of Stavropol Krai the forest-steppe ecosystem remained from Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus rubra, Carpinus betulus. Meet also: Pyrus caucasicus, Acer platanoides, Ulmus campestris, Juglans regia (introducens). Bushes include: Crataegus monogyna, Malus orientalis, Swida australis, Prunus divaricata, P. spinosa, Rosa canina and others. Authors of work recommend to give to this biogeocenosis the status of the botanical nature reservation. Small forest. Soils – chernozems. Atmospheric precipitations – 450–500 mm a year. The nature reservation will include both the wood, and the dry steppe – ecotone with types: Stipa pulcherrima, S. pennata, S. capillata, Festuca valesiaca, Koeleria cristata, Medicago romanica, Lotus caucasicus, etc. Rare, protected species of plants over 36: Allium ursinum, Colchicum laetum, Corydalis caucasica, Bellevalia sarmatica, Hlathanhtera sarmatica, Stipa pulcherrima, etc. In its structure of drug plant more than 26 types: Thamus communis, Thymus marschallinus, Hypericum perforatum, Cheledonium majus, etc. Future forest-steppe the nature reservation functions without new, visible signs of degradation of not moral and grass associations. The mode of the botanical wildlife area – guarantee of preservation of its rich biodiversity, studying, use in the system of education and ecotourism.

Keywords: nature reservation, landscape, undergrowth, resources, rare species, ecosystem, agrosteppes.

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HIGH-MOUNTAIN PROVINCE OF DAGHESTAN IS FAVORITE PLACE

FOR THE ORGANIZATION OF PRIMARY SEEDS OF POTATOES

 Serderov V. K.

Candidate of agricultural sciences, Head of vegetable and potato growing department, Dagestan Research Institute of Agriculture named after F. G. Kisriev, Russia, Makhachkala, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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The results of researches on studying of influence of soil and climatic conditions, the cultivation of potatoes in mountain province of the Republic of Dagestan, to defeat the spread of viral diseases. Considers the possibility of using favorable soil and climatic conditions, created by nature in the mountain area, for the organization of primary seed production, and selection of economically profitable schemes of growing super-super elite and elite potatoes on virus-free basis to ensure that all kartoffelveredlung farms of the republic of high quality planting material.

Keywords: potatoes, climatic conditions, seed production, viral disease vectors, yield.

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SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MACROZOOBENTHOS OF LAKE SALTY, UNIQUE FOR THE MIDDLE

VOLGA REGION

 Bedova P. V.

Ph.D. in Biology, associate professor of the Department of Biology of the Institute of Medicine and Natural Sciences, Mari State University, Institute of Medicine and Natural Sciences, Russia424002, Republic of Mariy El, Yoshkar-Ola, Lenin Square, 1,  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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In the course of the research there were held hydrobiological studies of unique Lake Salty, which is characterized by fast stratification of the lake waters by salinity and a very high level of mineralization. The macrozoobenthos of the investigated lake is represented by 28 species. In all seasons the gastropods Planorbis planorbis (Linnaeus, 1758) dominated in frequency. A rare for the republic species Ranatra linearis (Linnaeus, 1761), listed in the Red Book of the Animals of the Republic of Mari El, was discovered in the reservoir. The lake bottom community of species has low stability, because the indices of species diversity, abundance and biomass are low in all seasons, apparently due to high mineralization of the reservoir.

Key words: lake, benthos, species diversity, abundance, biomass, trophic structure, ecotopic structure, chemical composition of water. 

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DEFINITION OF PROTEIN OF THE BIOMASS OF THE FUNGI OF TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM-25/P IN THE MIX OF THE SUBSTRATUM

 Mukhammadiev B. K.

Tashkent State Agrarian University, University str., 2, Tashkent 100140, UzbekistanThis email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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It is studied biosynthesis of protein in biomass of a fungis of Trichoderma harzianum-25/P On cellulose of the containing substrata. It is established that formation of protein depends on a cellulose of the containing substratum and the size of its fractions in the environment of cultivation. The greatest number of protein of a biomass (19,7 %) as a source of carbon is received at fungi cultivation on the corn cabbage stump crushed till the size of particles of 90 microns. Research of fractional composition of protein of a biomass of Trichoderma harzianum-25/P showed that 41,1 its % is formed in water-soluble fraction in the exponential growth phase, the greatest quantite of amino acids contains in albumin fraction (32,40 %).

Key wordsa corn cabbage stump, protein, amino acids, fractions, mushroom.

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THE FORMATION OF B–GROUP VITAMINS WITH NEW FORMS OF MICROMYCETES

Mukhammadiev B. K.

Tashkent State Agrarian University, University str., 2, Tashkent 100140, Uzbekistan This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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It has been studied an ability to synthesize B-group vitamins in protoplast cultures of cellulolytic active Trichoderma harzianum fungus. It has been established (detected) that studied micromycetes are active producers of B-group vitamins and they from in cultural medium under their cultivating on Chapek`s medium, supplied with whent bran, the following products (in micrograms per 100 ml): thiamine – 42,4–56,2; inosite – 27,5–46,4; and biotin 4,8–7,2.  

Key words: cellulolytic, micromycetes, B-group vitamins, protoplast, Chapek`s medium, cultures.

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FORMATION OF CELLULOLITIC ENZYMES TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM-25/Р DEPENDING ON CULTIVATION CONDITIONS

 Mukhammadiev B. K.

Tashkent State Agrarian University, University str., 2, Tashkent 100140, Uzbekistan This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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For the creation favorable conditions in growing fungi and enzyme biosynthesis a number of cheap local raw materials investigated and on their basis the methods of enzyme synthesis were studied. As a result of researches optimum conditions for cultivation of a fungi Trichoderma harzianum-25/P promoting active synthesis of cellulolitic enzymes are established: Chapek-Doksa circle from 0,5% of corn extract and 3% of filtering paper, рН 5,0; cultivation deep within 8-10 days; temperature 30-350С.

Key words: biosynthesis, enzyme, withdrawal, sugar, producer, cellulаse, cellulose, fungi, hydrolysis, substratum.

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PRODUCTION WASTES AS BASIS OF COMPLEX COMPOSTS

 Beliuchenko I. S.

Doctor of biological sciences, professor, Kuban State Agrarian University named after I. T. Trubilin, Russia, Krasnodar

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All waste products are disperse systems, including true and colloidal solutions, differing in the shapes and sizes of the particles. Colloidal solutions represent biphasic systems, including the dispersion medium and the dispersion phase, whose sizes range from 1 to 100 nm. Colloidal sols are combined into aggregates and their particles have a charge of the same sign. Gels are also common in natural wastes.

Key words: colloids, biphase systems, complex compost, coagulation, sedimentation, sols, gels.

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ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF CROP ROTATIONS WITH SHORT ROTATION ON EROSION SLOPES OF THE ROSTOV REGION

 Gaevaya E. A.

Candidate of Biological Sciences. Don Zonal Research Institute of Agriculture, Institutskaya Str., 1, Settlement Rassvet, Aksay area, Rostov Region, 346735, Russian Federation, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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Studies have been conducted in a multivariate stationary experiment at the Aksai district of Rostov region in 1991–2016 years. The rotation number of clean steam washed out of the soil ranges from 1,8 to 4,6 tonns per hectare, depending on soil cultivation. Replacing pure steam helps reduce soil erosion by       48–50 %, while the chisel processing application 21–30 %. The largest amount of humus is lost to the drain of the washout and in the rotation with a pure steam for the processing moldboard from 165,2 kg/ha. The degree of manifestation of erosion processes in crop rotations in the system of contour-landscape organization of the territory the slope of 3,5-4° depends on the ratio of stable and unstable erosion crops in the sown area of crop rotations with short rotation. The highest environmental effect was obtained when using soil conservation tillage in crop rotations with short rotation, and the smallest share of net couple. Greater resistance to erosion processes have perennial grasses, so the introduction of 40 % of perennial grasses in the rotation allows you to reduce the soil washout by two or more times, and in some years in general, prevent it. An increase in the percentage of perennial grasses to 40 % can reduce losses of humus and nutrients by 42–48 %. Preventing erosion processes increases soil fertility in crop rotations with a short rotation located on erosion-prone lands and promotes stable production of agricultural products in the Rostov Region.

Keywords: crop rotation, soil erosion, water permeability, humus, environmental assessment.

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FEATURES OF THE BIOLOGICAL STABILITY OF AMARANTS TAILED IN CONDITIONS OF POLLUTION OF SOILS BY LEAD

 Nevedrov N. P.

Candidate of Biological Sciences, Kursk State University, Central Federal District, Kursk Region, Kursk, Radishcheva Street, 33;  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Fomina M. Y.

3rd year student, Kursk State University, Central Federal District, Kursk Region, Kursk, Radishcheva Street, 33;  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Riumshina N. S.

4rd year student, Kursk State University, Central Federal District, Kursk Region, Kursk, Radishcheva Street, 33;  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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The article presents the results of an experiment that reveals the influence of lead on the physiological parameters of amaranth caudate (Amarantthus caudatus L). The effect of metal on the emergence rate and germinating capacity was revealed, a comparative analysis of the effect of various lead concentrations on these parameters was carried out. The role of heavy metal in changing the metric parameters of the plant at the initial and subsequent stages of its development was determined, and the dependence of the size of the seedlings on the value of the MPC of lead was revealed. A change in the dry weight of the studied amaranth plants under the influence of differential concentrations of lead is described. In addition to the above listed parameters, one of the main parameters of the quality of plant material was determined: water content. The influence of lead on this indicator was established and the reasons for its change were identified.

Key words: amaranth, heavy metals, lead, emergence rate, germinating capacity, phytoremediation, water content, human intervention.

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